Cannabis Freedom Activist Network's Guide To
Cannabis Research

CANNABIS RESEARCH ISSUES
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OTHER CANNABIS RELATED
Cannabis Freedom Activist Network

 

 

 

Cannabis Research Organizations & Websites

also see Medicinal Cannabis Research Organizations & Websites

Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics
California Cannabis Research Medical Group
CannabisMD
CannabisMD Reports
Cannabis.net
Cannabis Research Institute
Coalition for Compassionate Access
Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis
Contigo-Conmigo
Drug Policy Alliance Network
Drug Reform Coordination Network
DrugScience.org
Drugtext Foundation
ElectricEmperor.com
Erowid
International Cannabinoid Research Society
Lycaeum
Marijuana Policy Project
Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies Inc
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws
New Scientist
North American Industrial Hemp Council
Olsen Marijuana Archive
OnlinePot
Partnership for Responsible Drug Information
RxMarijuana.com
Schaffer Library of Drug Policy
Science of Medical Marijuana
UK Cannabis Internet Activists
Web Station #19

 

 

Cannabis Researchers

Abrams, Donald I
Atkinson, J Hampston
Bakalar, James B
Cavanaugh, Jay R
Coates, Thomas J
Cohen, Sidney
Conrad, Chris
Corral, Mike
Corral, Valerie Leveroni
Desprez, Pierre
Dreher, Melanie C
Fride, Ester
Fry, Molly
Gampel, Joanne C
Gardner, Frederick H
Glick, Ed
Grant, Igopr
Grinspoon, Lester
Killian, Rob
Krumm, Bryan A
Kubby, Steve
Leveque, Phillip
Mahlberg, Paul G
Martinez, Martin
Mattison, Andrew (deceased)
McAllister, Sean
Mechoulam, Raphael
Meng, Ian D
Mikuriya, Tod Hiro
Morgan, John P
Musty, Richard E
Nahas, Gabriel G
Notcott, William
Peele, Stanton
Pletcher, Mark J
Podrebarac, Francis
Raich, Angel McClary
Raich, Robert A
Rosen, Bill S
Rosenthal, Ed
Roth, Michael D
Russo, Ethan B
Slikker, William, Jr
Starks, Michael
Tashkin, Donald P
Terhune, Kenneth W
Vittinghoff, Eric
Ware, Mark
Zimmer, Lynn (deceased)

 

 

Accidents

also see Safety

2005: "All major studies show that marijuana consumption has little or no effect on driving ability, and may actually reduce accidents." claims Dana Larsen from "Stoned drivers are safe drivers", Cannabis Culture, Jan 11 2005.

2004: "No increased risk for road trauma was found for drivers exposed to cannabis." claims KL Movig, MP Mathijssen, PH Nagel, T van Egmond, JJ de Gier, HG Leufkens, AC Egberts from "Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents", PubMed, National Library of Medicine, July 2004.

2003: "Although the levels were low, subjects generally correctly identified if they were truly dosed or not. Their task was to drive through city streets while responding to traffic controls, crossing intersections and making turns at intersections. Using driving instructors' performance scores, Lamers and Ramaekers found essentially no differences between the dosed and non-dosed conditions. However, they also found that drivers under the THC-only condition evaluated their performance as significantly worse than under the placebo, the alcohol and the alcohol+THC condition. Thus, the study confirmed the hypothesis that, unlike alcohol, marijuana actually enhances rather than mitigates the perception of impairment. The only negative behavioral effect of THC was a slight reduction in the frequency of intersections searched for cross traffic (based on the drivers' eye movement records). Although statistically significant, the drop was negligible: from a mean frequency of 85% of the intersections in the placebo condition, to a mean frequency of 82% in the combined alcohol+THC condition." – "CANNABIS", State of Knowledge of Drug-Impaired Driving, US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT HS 809 642), Sept 2003.

2002: "When Doctor Yesavage was funded by the federal government to repeat the study with the simple controls that others and I [Dr John P Morgan] had suggested, they were unable to show any impact of marijuana use after four hours in a similar group of people. Therefore, I believe that the truth is that marijuana use will impact airplane and driving simulators and to some degree driving performance for three hours to four hours after use; however there is no sustained impact. Any impact is relatively minor. ... The study findings show that cannabis alone does not increase the likelihood of responsibility in an accident. However, most of the studies used a measurement of THC-COOH, an inactive metabolite that can remain in urine for several days. When the authors separated out THC alone, the risk ratio was slightly higher, even though it did not reach the required level of significance. In addition, as the concentration of THC increases, the more the ratio increases, once again suggesting a dose-response relationship. Furthermore, the cannabis and alcohol combination significantly increases risk. Without being able to draw any definite conclusions, there are some signs that their effects are in synergy and not merely additive. Studies on injured drivers (Terhune (1982) and Hunter (1998)) have ratios somewhat higher than in the other studies on fatal accidents. According to Bates and Blakely (1999), the apparent reduction in the risk of a fatal accident stems from the fact that drivers under the influence of cannabis drive less dangerously, for example by reducing their speed." – "Cannabis: Our Position for a Canadian Public Policy", Report of the Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs, Vol 1, Chapter 8, Sept 2002.

2000: "In conclusion, cannabis impairs driving behaviour. However, this impairment is mediated in that subjects under cannabis treatment appear to perceive that they are indeed impaired. Where they can compensate, they do, for example, by not overtaking, by slowing down and by focusing their attention when they know a response will be required. However, such compensation is not possible where events are unexpected or where continuous attention is required. Effects of driving behaviour are present up to an hour after smoking but do not continue for extended periods." – "Cannabis and driving: a review of the literature and commentary (No 12)", Chapter 11, Department of Transport, United Kingdom Government

2000: "... [United Kingdom] government-funded research ... shows that driving under the influence of drugs makes motorists more cautious and has a limited impact on their risk of crashing. In the study, conducted by the Transport Research Laboratory, grade A cannabis specially imported from America was given to 15 regular users. ... drivers were then put through four weeks of tests on driving simulators to gauge reaction times and awareness. Regular smokers were used because previous tests in America using first-timers resulted in the volunteers falling over and feeling ill. The laboratory found its guinea pigs through what it described as a 'snowballing technique' - one known user was asked to find another after being promised anonymity and exemption from prosecution agreed with the Home Office. Instead of proving that drug-taking while driving increased the risk of accidents, researchers found that the mellowing effects of cannabis made drivers more cautious and so less likely to drive dangerously. Although the cannabis affected reaction time in regular users, its effects appear to be substantially less dangerous than fatigue or drinking. Research by the Australian Drugs Foundation found that cannabis was the only drug tested that decreased the relative risk of having an accident. The findings will embarrass ministers at the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) who commissioned the study after pressure from motoring organisations and anti-drug campaigners. Lord Whitty, the transport minister, will receive the report later this month. Last week police revealed details of new drug-driving tests to be administered by the roadside, which were received with some amusement. They require suspected drug-drivers to stand on one leg, lean back and touch their nose with their eyes closed, and to count to 30 silently with their eyes shut. This is apparently difficult for those on a drug trip. ... if the findings are less than frightening on the effects of marijuana, they may convince [UK] ministers to put more money into raising driver awareness of fatigue. Tiredness is now blamed for causing 10% of all fatal accidents, compared with 6% for alcohol and 3% for drugs. The report's surprising conclusions will not sway organisations such as the RAC, which believes there is incontrovertible evidence that drug-driving is a growing menace. DETR statistics published in January showed a six-fold increase in the number of people found to be driving with drugs in their system after fatal road accidents. The figure jumped from 3% in 1989 to 18%. Dr Rob Tunbridge, the report's author, refused to reveal his findings before they were published but said: 'If you were to ask me to rank them in order of priority, fatigue is the worst killer, followed by alcohol, and drugs follow way behind in third.' Tunbridge admitted that the effect of drugs differed with the individual, the amount taken, the environment they were taken in and the point at which you tested reactions." claims Jonathan Carr-Brown from "Cannabis may make you a safer driver", Times United Kingdom, Aug 13 2000.

1999: "Recent research into impairment and traffic accident reports from several countries shows that marijuana taken alone in moderate amounts does not significantly increase a driver's risk of causing an accident -- unlike alcohol ... While smoking marijuana does impair driving ability, it does not share alcohol's effect on judgment. Drivers on marijuana remain aware of their impairment, prompting them to slow down and drive more cautiously to compensate ..." claims Alison Smiley, University of Toronto researcher, from "Marijuana Not a Factor in Driving Accidents", Mar 29 1999.

1998: "The largest study ever done linking road accidents with drugs and alcohol has found drivers with cannabis in their blood were no more at risk than those who were drug-free. In fact, the findings by a pharmacology team from the University of Adelaide and Transport SA showed drivers who had smoked marijuana were marginally less likely to have an accident than those who were drug-free. ... the difference was not great enough to be statistically significant but could be explained by anecdotal evidence that marijuana smokers were more cautious and drove more slowly because of altered time perception." claims Dr Jason White from "Cannabis and driving", Canberra Times, Oct 21 1998.

1996: "Compared to alcohol, which makes people take more risks on the road, marijuana made drivers slow down and drive more carefully.... Cannabis is good for driving skills, as people tend to overcompensate for a perceived impairment." claims Professor Olaf Drummer, forensic scientist, Royal College of Surgeons in Melbourne, Australia.

1995: "The epidemiological studies indicate that in its own right, cannabis makes at most a very small contribution to motor vehicle accidents, and so on the whole it may seem be a minor road safety problem by comparison with alcohol." claim Wayne Hall, Robin Room, Susan Bondy from "A Comparative Appraisal of the Health and Psychological Consequences of Alcohol, Cannabis, Nicotine and Opiate Use", Project on Health Implications of Cannabis Use, World Health Organization, Aug 28 1995

1995: "In high doses marijuana probably produces driving impairment in most people. However, there is no evidence that marijuana, in current consumption patterns, contributes substantially to the rate of vehicular accidents in America." claims "Claim #12 : Marijuana is a Major Cause of Highway Accidents", "Exposing Marijuana Myths: A Review of the Scientific Evidence" by Lynn Zimmer (deceased), John P Morgan

1994: "The study showed that a modest dose of alcohol (BAC = 0.034 g%) produced a significant impairment in city driving, as measured by the molar approach, relative to a placebo. More specifically, alcohol impaired both vehicle handling and traffic maneuvers. Marijuana, administered in a dose of 100ʵg/kg THC, on the other hand, did not significantly change mean driving performance as measured by this approach. ... The results of the studies corroborate those of previous driving simulator and closed-course tests by indicating that THC in inhaled doses up to 300 µg/kg has significant, yet not dramatic, dose-related impairing effects on driving performance. Standard deviation of lateral position in the road-tracking test was the most sensitive measure for revealing THC's adverse effects. ... Evidence from the present and previous studies strongly suggests that alcohol encourages risky driving whereas THC encourages greater caution, at least in experiments. Another way THC seems to differ qualitatively from many other drugs is that the former's users seem better able to compensate for its adverse effects while driving under the influence." claims Hindrik W J Robbe, "Marijuana use and driving", Journal of the International Hemp Association (defunct), vol 1, pgs 44-48

1994: "Testing Reckless Drivers for Cocaine and Marijuana" by D Brookoff, et al, New England Journal of Medicine #331, pgs 518-522.

1993: "This program of research has shown that marijuana, when taken alone, produces a moderate degree of driving impairment which is related to the consumed THC dose. The impairment manifests itself mainly in the ability to maintain a steady lateral position on the road, but its magnitude is not exceptional in comparison with changes produced by many medicinal drugs and alcohol. Drivers under the influence of marijuana retain insight in their performance and will compensate, where they can, for example, by slowing down or increasing effort. As a consequence, THC's adverse effects on driving performance appear relatively small. THC's effects on road-tracking after doses up to 300 g/kg never exceeded alcohol's at bacs of 0.08 %; and, were in no way unusual compared to many medicinal drugs' (Robbe, 1994; Robbe and O'Hanlon, 1995; O'Hanlon et al., 1995). Yet, THC's effects differ qualitatively from many other drugs, especially alcohol. Evidence from the present and previous studies strongly suggests that alcohol encourages risky driving whereas THC encourages greater caution, at least in experiments. Another way THC seems to differ qualitatively from many other drugs is that the former's users seem better able to compensate for its adverse effects while driving under the influence. Although THC's adverse effects on driving performance appeared relatively small in the tests employed in this program, one can still easily imagine situations where the influence of marijuana smoking might have a dangerous effect; i.e., emergency situations which put high demands on the driver's information processing capacity, prolonged monotonous driving, and after THC has been taken with other drugs, especially alcohol. Because these possibilities are real, the results of the present studies should not be considered as the final word. They should, however, serve as the point of departure for subsequent studies that will ultimately complete the picture of THC's effects on driving performance." claims "Marijuana and Actual Driving Performance" (DOT HS 808 078, Final Report, Nov 1993), US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

1992: "The report concluded that alcohol was by far the 'dominant problem' in drug-related accidents. A responsibility analysis showed that alcohol-using drivers were conspicuously culpable in fatal accidents, especially at high blood concentrations or in combination with other drugs, including marijuana. However, those who used marijuana alone were found to be if anything less culpable than non-drug-users. The report concluded, "there was no indication that marijuana by itself was a cause of fatal accidents." reports Dale Gieringer from "The Incidence and Role of Drugs in Fatally Injured Drivers" by Kenneth W Terhune, et al, US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT DOT HS 808 065)

1987: In January, 16 persons die and 170 are injured after an engineer drunk on alcohol passes out and crashes his Amtrak passenger train into three locomotives. The engineer had also been smoking cannabis. Many cannabis prohibitionists point to this incident when arguing that cannabis use is not a victimless act.

1983: "Marihuana doses of 100 and 200 ug 49 THC/kg body weight do not lead to any consistent driver impairment. They do, however, lead to a general decrease in vehicle speed. Because of the relatively small absolute speed difference, these results may not be of practical significance, however. ... No adverse subject reactions were, observed at any of the [cannabis and alcohol ] doseage combinations." claims A C Stein, R W Allen, M L Cook, R L Karl from "A Simulator Study of the Combined Effects of Alcohol and Marijuana on Driving Behavior–Phase II", US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT HS 806 405)

1982: "For now it appears that cannabis impairments may be more subtle than alcohol impairments." claims Kenneth W Terhune and James C Fell from "The Role of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Other Drugs in the Accidents of Injured Drivers", US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT HS 806 181)

1980: "Marijuana and Driving", A J McBay and S M Owens, Problems of Drug Dependence 1980, editted by L S Harris, published by US Government Printing Office, pgs 257-263.

1977: "Effects of Marijuana on Human Reaction Time and Motor Control", T O Kv'alseth, Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol 45, pgs 935-939.

1976: "Effects of Cannabis and Alcohol on Automobile Driving and Psychomotor Tracking", R W Hansteen, et al, Annals of New York Academy of Science, vol 282, pgs 240-56.

1976: "Marijuana: Effects on Simulated Driving Performance", H Moskowitz, et al, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol 8, pgs 45-50.

1976: "Visual Search Behaviour While Viewing Driving Scenes Under the Influence of Alcohol and Marijuana", H Moskowitz, et al, Human Factors, vol 18, pgs 417-431.

Cannabis and Road Safety, research studies to examine the effects of cannabis on driving skills and on actual driving performance by Dr. G.B.Chesher, Department of Pharmacology University of Sydney and National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre University of New South Wales, Australia.
shug.co.uk/research/driving2.htm

"Simulated driving scores for subjects experiencing a normal social 'high' and the same subjects under control conditions are not significantly different. However, there are significantly more errors for alcohol intoxicated than for control subjects" claims Crancer Study, Washington Department of Motor Vehicles.
csuchico.edu/pot/driving.html, druglibrary.org/schaffer/Library/studies/ledain/nonmed3.htm

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws' "Driving and Marijuana"
norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=5448

 

 

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

also see AIDS medicine, AIDS safety, AIDS Liberation

 

AIDS medicine

also see AIDS safety, Appetite, Immune System, Nausea, Weight

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids in the treatment of ... AIDS wasting syndrome ... THC itself is approved in the U.S. by the FDA, and it is used in many other countries ... for appetite enhancement. We, and many others, have found that not only THC does that, but also the endocannabinoids. This is one of the main reasons for high endocannabinoid levels during hunger and so on. Now, THC can be used, and is being used, for these two things." claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2000: "A study by researchers from the University of California, San Francisco has found that patients with HIV infection taking protease inhibitors do not experience short-term adverse virologic effects from using cannabinoids. ... All three groups gained weight. Part of that was due to regularly scheduled meals and snacks being readily available. However, the placebo arm averaged a gain of 1.30 kilograms while the subjects who took oral dronabinol gained an average of 3.18 kilograms. Those who smoked marijuana gained an average of 3.51 kilograms. Caloric intake reflected the same order." claims Dr Donald I Abrams from "Marijuana does not appear to alter viral loads of hiv patients taking protease inhibitors", July 13 2000.

1997: Australian AIDS patients who use cannabis have a better quality of life and patients with AIDS for more than 10 years find cannabis to be critical. One patient believes cannabis to be his "savior", claims "Dope Use Improves Lives of Patients: Research", Canberra Times, Jan 15 1997.

1989: "One study of marijuana use suggests that daily use for 9 weeks restored initially low numbers of T lymphocytes to normal." claim R A Kaslow, W C Blackwelder, D G Ostrow, D Yerg, J Palenicek , A H Coulson , R O Valdiserri, "No evidence for a Role of Alcohol or Other Psychoactive Drugs in Accelerating Immunodeficiency in HIV-1 Positive Individuals", Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Journal of the American Medical Association, June 16 1989.

 

AIDS safety

also see Immune System safety

2004: "Short-term cannabis use does not seem to adversely affect CD4+ cell counts or viral loads in HIV -infected patients, according to a report published in the August 19th issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine. In HIV-infected patients, marijuana has been used as an appetite stimulant and as a treatment for the nausea associated with some antiretroviral agents. However, concern has been raised that such therapy could have a harmful effect on disease status, because in theory, cannabinoid use could increase HIV levels by impairing the immune response or by interfering with the activity of protease inhibitors. Previously it was shown that short-term marijuana use did not influence nelfinavir metabolism. Although marijuana use did produce a drop in indinavir levels, this fall was small and unlikely to be clinically meaningful. However, it still remained unclear whether cannabinoid use had an effect on viral load or CD+ cell counts. To investigate, Dr. Donald I. Abrams, from the University of California at San Francisco, and colleagues assessed the outcomes of 67 HIV-infected patients who were randomly assigned to use marijuana cigarettes, cannabinoid capsules, or sugar pills (placebo) three times daily for 21 days. All of the patients had been receiving the same antiretroviral regimen, which included indinavir or nelfinavir, for at least 8 weeks before the study began. More than half of the subjects in each group had undetectable viral loads throughout the study, the researchers note. Although not statistically significant, marijuana and cannabinoid use were actually associated with a slight drop in viral load compared with placebo use. Marijuana and cannabinoid use did not produce a drop in CD4+ or CD8+ cell counts. In fact, compared with placebo use, treatment with these agents was actually associated with a slight increase in cell counts. The results suggest that short-term cannabinoid use is not unsafe for patients with HIV infection, the authors note. 'Further studies investigating the therapeutic potential of marijuana and other cannabinoids in patients with HIV infection and other populations are ongoing and should provide additional safety information over longer exposure periods,' they write." – "Marijuana use does not accelerate HIV infection", PakTribune & 420 Magazine, Dec 27 2004

2003: "These findings suggest no major, short-term harmful effects and possibly some beneficial effects of cannabinoids in HIV-infected patients taking protease inhibitors." claims Donald I Abrams, J F Hilton, R J Leiser, et al, from "Short-Term Effects of Cannabinoids in Patients with HIV-1 Infection", Annals of Internal Medicine, Aug 2003, vol 139, pgs 258-266.

2003: "The study noted that marijuana smokers with AIDS did have a significantly higher death rate than non-smokers, but said that their mortality was virtually the same as it was for AIDS patients who didn’t smoke marijuana. Researchers stressed that the links they found between marijuana use and death were associations and not an indication that marijuana was a cause of death.” from "Marijuana Smoking Doesn't Lead to Higher Death Rate", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

2000: "A study by researchers from the University of California, San Francisco has found that patients with HIV infection taking protease inhibitors do not experience short-term adverse virologic effects from using cannabinoids. ... All three groups gained weight. Part of that was due to regularly scheduled meals and snacks being readily available. However, the placebo arm averaged a gain of 1.30 kilograms while the subjects who took oral dronabinol gained an average of 3.18 kilograms. Those who smoked marijuana gained an average of 3.51 kilograms. Caloric intake reflected the same order." claims Dr Donald I Abrams from "Marijuana does not appear to alter viral loads of hiv patients taking protease inhibitors", July 13 2000.

1989: "One study of marijuana use suggests that daily use for 9 weeks restored initially low numbers of T lymphocytes to normal." claim R A Kaslow, W C Blackwelder, D G Ostrow, D Yerg, J Palenicek , A H Coulson , R O Valdiserri, "No evidence for a Role of Alcohol or Other Psychoactive Drugs in Accelerating Immunodeficiency in HIV-1 Positive Individuals", Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Journal of the American Medical Association, June 16 1989.

"Studies on certain species of rats using high doses of THC showed observable suppression of the immune system and the actions of 'tumoricidal' cells. This evidence suggests that the wonderful auto-immune-disease-curative powers of THC measured in 1989 ... has a negative side to it - perhaps THC allows cancer and opportunistic infections to spread more easily? A report by the National Toxicology Program failed to support this notion. As described in AIDS Treatment News, the research project tested rats for two years with a steady dose of either THC or placebo. The THC dose was extremely high. The rats on THC lived longer and developed fewer tumors than those on the placebo. This report was not released on schedule and people have suggested it was deliberately suppressed because the results were too shocking." claims Los Angeles Cannabis Resource Center from "Cannabinoids in the Immune System".

 

 

Addiction

also see Alcoholism, Habituation, Tolerance, Withdrawal

2006: "Now, marijuana's addictiveness is supported by clinical and epidemiological studies based on the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual. But marijuana for some time has been widely used as a countercultural recreational drug, and drug policy reformers in particular refuse to apply the addictive label to this substance. Political conservatives, on the other hand, insist on the harmfulness of marijuana as a tenet of their drug policy. The grounds are thus set for perpetual conflict around the drug, conflict that cannot be resolved by clinical designations or epidemiological research. ... The addictiveness of caffeine, for example in coffee, is periodically rediscovered (see Juliano & Griffiths, 2004), but ignored because people mainly don't care about addiction to this popular, legal, accepted drug (unless, occasionally, someone is trying to quit). Moreover, caffeine dependence is not considered in the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual, DSM-IV ... In recent years, however, middle-class whites have discovered that marijuana is a relatively safe experience. Although we still get sporadic, alarmist reports on one or another harmful aspect of marijuana, respected organs of society are now calling for the decriminalization of the drug. We are near the end of a process of cultural acceptance of marijuana. Students and young professionals, many of whom lead very staid lives, have become comfortable with it, while still feeling sure that people who take heroin become addicted.  ... The two most widely used substances that are thought of as addictive are cigarettes and alcohol. These are legal, and there is no serious effort in place to proscribe them. These are joined by pain killers, which are also widely recognized as addictive (such as, most recently, Oxycontin; Peele, 2004). Obviously, we are prepared to accept addictive drugs in our legal pharmacopoeia. ... What is the correct attitude towards marijuana's addictive potential? We need to recognize that addiction is not so much bound up in the characteristics of drugs (aside from their ability to modify mood quickly and predictably), as it is in the situations of users. ... But a spate of recent studies have identified a marijuana dependence syndrome in about 10 percent of current users. ... For the most part, the debate over marijuana's addictiveness is all flash and no substance. Certainly, marijuana is addictive - as are coffee, antidepressants, and tranquilizers. This, in itself, has no weight in policy decisions about marijuana." claims internationally recognized addiction expert Stanton Peele from "Marijuana Is Addictive - So What?", Jan 18 2006.

2004: "All patients reported benefit, indicating that for at least a subset of alcoholics, cannabis use is associated with reduced drinking. ... There are ample references, however, to the use of cannabis as a substitute for opiates (Birch 1889) and as a treatment for delirium tremens (Clendinning 1843; Moreau 1845), which were among the first uses by European physicians. ... At the turn of the 19th century in the United States, cannabis was listed as a treatment for delirium tremens in standard medical texts (Edes 1887; Potter 1895) and manuals (Lilly 1898; Merck 1899; Parke Davis 1909). Since delirium tremens is associated with advanced alcoholism, we can adduce that patients who were prescribed cannabis and used it on a long term basis were making a successful substitution. ... The patient had observed that when she smoked marijuana socially on weekends she decreased her alcoholic intake. She was instructed to substitute cannabis any time she felt the urge to drink. This regimen helped her to reduce her alcohol intake to zero. ... Even if use is daily, cannabis replacing alcohol (or other addictive, toxic drugs) reduces harm because of its relatively benign side-effect profile. Cannabis-only usage is not associated with car crashes; it does not damage the liver, the esophagus, the spleen or the digestive tract. The chronic alcohol-inebriation-withdrawal cycle ceases with successful cannabis substitution. Sleep and appetite are restored, ability to focus and concentrate is enhanced, energy and activity levels are improved, and pain and muscle spasms are relieved. Family and social relationships can be sustained as pursuit of long-term goals ends the cycle of crisis and apology. ... Treating alcoholism by cannabis substitution creates a different doctor-patient relationship. Patients seek out the physician to confer legitimacy on what they are doing or are about to do. My most important service is to end their criminal status, Aeschalapian protection from the criminal justice system, which often brings an expression of relief. An alliance is created that promotes candor and trust. The physician is permitted to act as a coach or an enabler in a positive sense." claims Tod Hiro Mikuriya from "Cannabis as a Substitute for Alcohol", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003. 

2003: "The reportedly successful use of cannabis as an alternative to alcohol, SSRI antidepressants, and stimulants (in the treatment of ADHD) warrants serious, large-scale investigation. A necessary first step is for the doctors who are monitoring patients using cannabis for these purposes to agree on basic definitions, diagnostic criteria, etc., and to adopt uniform record-keeping methods. Hergenrather’s observation that half his cannabis-using patients have been able to stop taking pharmaceutical drugs – and others have reduced their intake – suggests a line of inquiry that belongs on a common interview form." claims Frederick H Gardner from "Which Conditions are Californians Actually Treating With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

2001: "Cannabis has long been described as creating a unique dual consciousness, its users simultaneously in and outside the "real world." Contrast this to the world surrounding users of large amounts of alcohol. For many of the patients in this study, the shift from alcohol to cannabis opened a new option on what had been an intractable and worsening problem. In using cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, the cumulated problems of a hard alcoholic life did not disappear; but they could be seen and act upon from a distance, and soberly. At minimum, more effective coping and control resulted from cannabis substitution. Hope is restored with relief from chronic poisoning, and a life line back to functionality and dreams replaces injuries and nightmares." claim Tod Hiro Mikuriya and Jerry Mandel from "Cannabis Substitution: Harm Reduction Treatment for Alcoholism and Drug Dependence", by Oct 2001

1990: "To rank today's commonly used drugs by their addictiveness, we asked experts to consider two questions: How easy is it to get hooked on these substances and how hard is it to stop using them? Although a person's vulnerability to drug also depends on individual traits – physiology, psychology, and social and economic pressures – these rankings reflect only the addictive potential inherent in the drug. The numbers below are relative rankings, based on the experts' scores for each substance:"

100 nicotine (tobacco)
  99 methamphetamine, smoked (ice, glass)
  98 cocaine, smoked (crack)
  92 methamphetamine, injected (crystal meth)
  85 diazepam (Valium)
  82 methaqualone (Quaalude)
  80 secobarbital (Seconal)
  80 ethanol (alcohol)
  79 heroin
  78 methamphetamine, snorted (crank)
  72 cocaine, snorted
  70 caffeine (coffee)
  60 phencyclidine (PCP)
  20 cannabis (marijuana)
  19 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy)
  17 psilocybin (mushrooms)
  17 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
  17 mescaline (peyote)

– reports John Hastings, "Relative Addictiveness of Various Substances", In Health, Nov/Dec 1990

1970: "Cannabis Substitution: An Adjunctive Therapeutic Tool in the Treatment of Alcoholism" by Tod Hiro Mikuriya, Medical Times, vol 98 no 4, Apr 1970, pgs 187-191.

 

 

Aggression

also see Amotivation, Progression

2004: "NDTS 2003 data indicate, however, that a relatively small percentage (4.6%) of state and local law enforcement agencies nationwide identify marijuana as the drug most contributing to violent crime in their areas." claims US National Drug Intelligence Center from "Marijuana", National Drug Threat Assessment 2004, Apr 2004.

2003: "Cannabis reduces likelihood of violence during intoxication, but mounting evidence associates withdrawal with aggressivity. ... While cannabis has historically been excoriated for being a social 'menace' and for inducing homicidal rages (Julien, 1992), more contemporary research indicates cannabis-intoxicated individuals are in fact less likely to act aggressively. However, a developing literature demonstrates an authentic cannabis withdrawal syndrome, one symptom of which may be increased likelihood of interpersonal aggression. ... the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (the primary psychoactive component of cannabis) on aggressive behavior have been studied at length, with the preponderance of studies focusing on the acute effects of THC intoxication. The results of these studies suggest that while low doses of THC may slightly increase aggression, moderate and high doses can suppress or even eliminate aggressive behavior (Myerscough & Taylor, 1986; Taylor, 1976). ... The animal literature also largely fails to support the cannabis–violence relationship; cannabis administration tends to foster submissive behaviors and suppress attack behaviors (Miczek, 1978; Sieber, Frischknect, & Waser, 1980). ... According to legislators, one of the reasons drugs are made illegal and the cost of policing and legislating justifiable is to curb the threat of violence. There are two ironies to this. First, the drug we know to be most likely to induce aggressive behavior [alcohol] is not only readily and legally available, it is often sold by the state for profit. Second, the greatest amount of drug-related violence may be due to the means of regulating an illegal and highly profitable industry (Fagin & Chin, 1990)." claims Peter N S Hoakena, Sherry H Stewart from "Drugs of abuse and the elicitation of human aggressive behavior", Addictive Behaviors, vol 28, pgs 1533-1554.

1968: "The evidence of a link with violent crime is far stronger with alcohol than with the smoking of cannabis." claims British Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence in Wootten Report: British Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence.

 

 

Alcoholism

also see Addiction, Alcohol, Comparative Pharmacology of Cannabis v Alcohol, Habituation, Tolerance, Withdrawal

2003: "All patients reported benefit, indicating that for at least a subset of alcoholics, cannabis use is associated with reduced drinking. The cost of alcoholism to individual patients and society-at-large warrants testing of the cannabis-substitution approach and study of the drug-of-choice phenomenon. ... As could be expected among patients seeking physician approval to treat alcoholism with cannabis, all reported that they’d found it 'very effective' (41) or 'effective' (38). Efficacy was inferred from other responses on seven questionnaires. ... Nine patients reported that they practiced total abstinence from alcohol and attributed their success to cannabis. Their years in sobriety: 19, 18, 16, 10, 7, 6, 4 (2), and 2. Twenty-nine patients reported a return of symptoms when cannabis was discontinued. Typical comments: 'I quit using cannabis while I was in the army and my drinking doubled. I was also involved in several violent incidents due to alcohol.' ” reports Dr Tod Hiro Mikuriya, MD from "Cannabis as a Substitute for Alcohol", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

2003: "The reportedly successful use of cannabis as an alternative to alcohol, SSRI antidepressants, and stimulants (in the treatment of ADHD) warrants serious, large-scale investigation. A necessary first step is for the doctors who are monitoring patients using cannabis for these purposes to agree on basic definitions, diagnostic criteria, etc., and to adopt uniform record-keeping methods. Hergenrather’s observation that half his cannabis-using patients have been able to stop taking pharmaceutical drugs – and others have reduced their intake – suggests a line of inquiry that belongs on a common interview form." claims Frederick H Gardner from "Which Conditions are Californians Actually Treating With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

1970: "Cannabis Substitution: An Adjunctive Therapeutic Tool in the Treatment of Alcoholism" by Dr Tod Hiro Mikuriya, MD, Medical Times, vol 98 no 4, Apr 1970, pgs 187-191.

 

 

Alzheimer's

also see Brain, Donepezil, Parkinson's, Tacrine

2006: "We have demonstrated that THC competitively inhibits AChE and, furthermore, binds to the AChE PAS and diminishes [amyloid-beta-peptide] aggregation. In contrast to previous studies aimed at utilizing cannabinoids in Alzheimer's disease therapy, our results provide a mechanism whereby the THC molecule can directly impact Alzheimer's disease pathology. We note that while THC provides an interesting Alzheimer's disease drug lead, it is a psychoactive compound with strong affinity for endogenous cannabinoid receptors. It is noteworthy that THC is a considerably more effective inhibitor of AChE-induced [amyloid-beta-peptide] deposition than the approved drugs for Alzheimer's disease treatment, donepezil and tacrine, which reduced [amyloid-beta-peptide] aggregation by only 22% and 7%, respectively, at twice the concentration used in our studies. Therefore, AChE inhibitors such as THC and its analogues may provide an improved therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease, augmenting acetylcholine levels by preventing neurotransmitter degradation and reducing [amyloid-beta-peptide] aggregation, thereby simultaneously treating both the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer's disease." reports Lisa M Eubanks, Claude J Rogers, Albert E Beuscher IV, George F Koob, Arthur J Olson, Tobin J Dickerson, Kim D Janda from "A Molecular Link between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology", Molecular Pharmaceutics, Aug 9 2006

2005: "The active ingredient in marijuana may stall decline from Alzheimer's disease, research suggests. Scientists showed a synthetic version of the compound may reduce inflammation associated with Alzheimer's and thus help to prevent mental decline. They hope the cannanbinoid may be used to developed new drug therapies. The research, by Madrid's Complutense University and the Cajal Institute, is published in the Journal of Neuroscience. The scientists first compared the brain tissue of patients who died from Alzheimer's disease with that of healthy people who had died at a similar age. They looked closely at brain cell receptors to which cannabinoids bind, allowing their effects to be felt. They also studied structures called microglia, which activate the brain's immune response. Microglia collect near the plaque deposits associated with Alzheimer's disease and, when active, cause inflammation. The researchers found a dramatically reduced functioning of cannabinoid receptors in diseased brain tissue. This was an indication that patients had lost the capacity to experience cannabinoids' protective effects. The next step was to test the effect of cannabinoids on rats injected with the amyloid protein that forms Alzheimer's plaques. Those animals who were also given a dose of a cannabinoid performed much better in tests of their mental functioning. The researchers found that the presence of amyloid protein in the rats' brains activated immune cells. However, rats that also received the cannabinoid showed no sign of microglia activation. Using cell cultures, the researchers confirmed that cannabinoids counteracted the activation of microglia and thus reduced inflammation. ... Researcher Dr Maria de Ceballos said: 'These findings that cannabinoids work both to prevent inflammation and to protect the brain may set the stage for their use as a therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease.' Dr Susanne Sorensen, head of research at the Alzheimer's Society, said: 'This is important research because it provides another piece of the jigsaw puzzle on the workings of the brain. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, so the identification of another target for drug development is extremely welcome. The Alzheimer's Society looks forward to seeing further research being carried out on cannabinoid receptors as drug targets for Alzheimer's disease but would warn the public against taking marijuana as a way of preventing Alzheimer's. It is now generally recognised that as well as providing a 'high', long-term use of marijuana can also lead to depression in many individuals.' ... Harriet Millward, of the Alzheimer's Research Trust, said there were two main types of cannabinoid receptor, CR1 and CR2. 'It is CR1 that produces most of the effects of marijuana, including the harmful ones. If it is possible to make drugs that act only on CR2, as suggested by the authors of this study, they might mimic the positive effects of cannabinoids without the damaging ones of marijuana. However, this is a fairly new field of research and producing such selective drugs is not an easy task. There is also no evidence yet that cannabinoid-based drugs can slow the decline in human Alzheimer's patients." – "Marijuana may block Alzheimer's", BBC News, Feb 22 2005.

"Another very intriguing link between natural cannabinoids and memory was found in the brains of people who died of Alzheimer's disease. The researchers discovered that the brains of people died of Alzheimer's showed substantially less cannabinoid binding than shown by the brains of the control group. The abnormal absences of cannabinoid receptors weren't located in regions correleated with the damage done by Alzhemier's disease itself, so the researchers did not believe that the Alzheimer's disease caused the disappearance of CB1 receptors. The difference between the Alzheimer's and control CB1 levels was the highest in the hippocampus, the same region of the brain where cannabinoids help regulate short-term memory. The Alzheimer's brains showed binding to the test cannabinoid that was reduced by 49% compared to the binding observed in the control brains. There is not yet an explanation for this difference. Research showed that in rats, cannabinoid receptors and the ability to respond to anandamide (and THC) develop gradually from birth until adulthood, and then remain fairly constant as the animals age." claims Los Angeles Cannabis Resource Center (defunct) from "Cannabinoids in the brain".

 

 

Amotivation

includes "amotivational syndrome", "pacifist syndrome"
also see Aggression

1995: "... it is doubtful that cannabis use produces a well defined amotivational syndrome. ... [The value of studies which support the] adult amotivation [theory are] limited by their small sample sizes..." claim Wayne Hall, Robin Room, Susan Bondy from "A Comparative Appraisal of the Health and Psychological Consequences of Alcohol, Cannabis, Nicotine and Opiate Use", Project on Health Implications of Cannabis Use, World Health Organization, Aug 28 1995.

1978: "Federally funded studies of long-tern users of high-potency marijuana in three foreign countries showed no difference between the health, ability to work, and brain function of users and non-users, a number of researchers said ... Dr Sidney Cohen of the University of California at Los Angeles, former head of drug research at the National Institute of Mental Health, added that studies of marijuana users at UCLA and University of California at Berkeley disputed the notion that smoking pot killed a student's motivation to work. But Dr Glen D Mellinger, in his studies of Berkeley students, concluded that the dropouts were poorly motivated even before they began using marijuana and the poor motivation may have led to drug use instead of the other way around." reports Stuart Auerbach in "Studies See No Health Effect of Pot Smoking, Researchers Say", Washington Post, Jan 28, 1978.

 

 

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

aka ALS, Lou Gehrig's Disease
also see Neurological Disorders

2004: "Cannabis (marijuana) has been proposed as treatment for a widening spectrum of medical conditions and has many properties that may be applicable to the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study is the first, anonymous survey of persons with ALS regarding the use of cannabis. There were 131 respondents, 13 of whom reported using cannabis in the last 12 months. Although the small number of people with ALS that reported using cannabis limits the interpretation of the survey findings, the results indicate that cannabis may be moderately effective at reducing symptoms of appetite loss, depression, pain, spasticity, and drooling. Cannabis was reported ineffective in reducing difficulties with speech and swallowing, and sexual dysfunction. The longest relief was reported for depression (approximately two to three hours)." – Abstract of "Survey of cannabis use in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis" by Dagmar Amtmann, Patrick Weydt, Kurt L Johnson, Mark P Jensen, Gregory T Carter, American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, Mar-Apr 2004, pgs 95-104. norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=6012

2002: "The neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids may have potential clinical relevance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson.s disease, cerebrovascular ischemia and stroke." claims Gregory T Carter and Patrick Weydt from "Cannabis: Old medicine with new promise for neurological disorders"

"Marijuana is a substance with many properties that may be applicable to the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These include analgesia, muscle relaxation, bronchodilation, saliva reduction, appetite stimulation, and sleep induction. In addition, marijuana has now been shown to have strong antioxidative and neuroprotective effects, which may prolong neuronal cell survival. In areas where it is legal to do so, marijuana should be considered in the pharmacological management of ALS. Further investigation into the usefulness of marijuana in this setting is warranted." claim Gregory T Carter, MD and Bill S Rosen, MD from "Marijuana In The Management of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis"

 

 

Anorexia

Also see Appetite

 

 

Anxiety

also see Depression

2005: "We show that 1 month after chronic HU210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] treatment, rats display increased newborn neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and significantly reduced measures of anxiety- and depression-like behavior. Thus, cannabinoids appear to be the only illicit drug whose capacity to produce increased hippocampal newborn neurons is positively correlated with its anxiolytic- [anti-anxiety] and antidepressant-like effects. ... To determine the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects produced by chronic HU210, we examined the effects of a selective destruction of the hippocampal neural stem cells on the behavioral effects of chronic HU210. During the course of receiving chronic HU210 injections, 1 group of Long-Evans rats received two 5-Gy doses of x-rays confined to a limited brain region including the hippocampus ... Because two 5-Gy doses of x-rays were not found to alter the morphology and function of mature neurons in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala, our results together suggest that chronic HU210 treatment reduced anxiety and depression, likely via promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. It has been shown that acute, high doses of CB1 agonists or cannabinoids produced anxiety-like effects in ratsor depression-like effects in mice. We observed here that chronic administration of high, but not low, doses of HU210 exerts anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects. To make things more complicated, acute, low doses of cannabinoids have been found to induce anxiolytic-like effects in rodents. These complicated effects of high and low doses of acute and chronic exposure to cannabinoids may explain the seemingly conflicting results observed in clinical studies regarding the effects of cannabinoid on anxiety and depression. In summary, since adult hippocampal neurogenesis is suppressed following chronic administration of opiates, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, the present study suggests that cannabinoids are the only illicit drug that can promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis following chronic administration. Increased hippocampal neurogenesis appears to underlie the mechanism of anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects produced by a high dose of chronic HU210 treatment. The opposing effects of high doses of acute and chronic cannabinoids, together with the anxiolytic-like effects caused by a low dose of cannabinoids, may finally explain discrepancies in the clinical study literature regarding the effects of cannabinoid on anxiety and depression." claims Wen Jiang, Yun Zhang, Lan Xiao, Jamie Van Cleemput, Shao-Ping Ji, Guang Bai, Xia Zhang, "Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects", Journal of Clinical Investigation, Nov 1 2005. PDF

2002: "Brain chemicals similar to those in cannabis wipe out bad memories - and could point to new drugs for severe anxiety. The chemicals are called cannabinoids. Mice with faulty cannabinoids can't forget traumatic events, Beat Lutz of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich, Germany and his colleagues have found. They suggest that the chemicals wipe fearful memories from the brain. Drugs that boost cannabinoids could help people who suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias and panic attacks, say the researchers. Its 'a great new idea,' says neuroscientist Pankaj Sah of the Australian National University in Canberra: 'It introduces a whole new target,' for such therapies, he says." reports Helen Pearson from "Innate cannabis chemical erases fears: Calming brain circuit could treat anxieties", Nature, Aug 1 2002.

 

 

Appetite

Also see Anorexia, Nausea, Weight Loss

2005: "THC itself is approved in the U.S. by the FDA, and it is used in many other countries for the prevention of vomiting during cancer chemotherapy, and for appetite enhancement. We, and many others, have found that not only THC does that, but also the endocannabinoids. This is one of the main reasons for high endocannabinoid levels during hunger and so on. Now, THC can be used, and is being used, for these two things. ... Sanofi-Synthélabo Recherché in France is doing some interesting work. They have a compound, which is an antagonist of the cannabinoid system, and they have tested it in about eight thousand obese people. They have found that it is extremely useful. Their appetite goes down slowly, as it should, and they lose weight. They plan to introduce the compound in twelve months time, I think. They're doing a lot of work in the field, and they expect huge sales." claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2000: "A study by researchers from the University of California, San Francisco has found that patients with HIV infection taking protease inhibitors do not experience short-term adverse virologic effects from using cannabinoids. ... All three groups gained weight. Part of that was due to regularly scheduled meals and snacks being readily available. However, the placebo arm averaged a gain of 1.30 kilograms while the subjects who took oral dronabinol gained an average of 3.18 kilograms. Those who smoked marijuana gained an average of 3.51 kilograms. Caloric intake reflected the same order." claims Dr Donald I Abrams, Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of California at San Francisco from "Marijuana Does Not Appear To Alter Viral Loads of HIV Patients Taking Protease Inhibitors", July 13 2000.
also at cannabismd.org/reports/abrams1.php, marijuananews.com/news.php3?sid=253

1988: "Effects of Smoked Marijuana on Food Intake and Body Weight of Humans Living in a Residential Laboratory" by R W Foltin, et al, Appetite, vol 11, pgs 1-14.

1986: "I started feeling the changes pretty much right away. Smoking marijuana also felt ten times better than taking Marinol pill. It helped reduce my nausea and I could hold down food better." claims Jim Kerns, cancer and chemotherapy patient.

1986: "Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans" by R W Foltin, J V Brady and M W Fischman, Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, vol 25, pgs 577-582.

1976: "Effects of Marijuana use on Body Weight and Caloric Intake in Humans" by Greenberg, et al, Psychopharmacology, vot 49, pgs 79-84.

"I was diagnosed with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis in 1986 ... My neurologist prescribed the drugs Compazine and Antivert. They had little affect on the nausea and no affect on the appetite, even after the dosage was doubled. After a couple of weeks of feeling sick and not eating, I had lost 15 pounds and no medication was helping. ... I decided to try smoking Cannabis/Marijuana. At first I felt worse, but after the effects of the smoke were gone I began to relax and get an appetite. I could finally eat again. Since that time, I have used cannabis to maintain a healthy body weight and a decent standard of living. For years I left my prescription drugs setting on the counter, as Cannabis was more effective." claims John E Precup from "Patient Testimonials"

 

 

Arthritis

Also see Pain

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids in the treatment of ... rheumatoid arthritis ... many years ago we elucidated the structure of a compound called cannabidiol, which is present in very large amounts in cannabis. It's more than THC, and it is anti-inflammatory. It is excellent against rheumatoid arthritis, at least in animals. We worked together with a London group–real top of the field people in rheumatoid arthritis–and they have never seen anything as good as that. So chances are that this particular compound, cannabidiol, can be used in rheumatoid arthritis. And it has no psychotropic effects, as a matter of fact, because it does not bind to the receptors. Maybe it has something to do with the metabolism of anandamide. Maybe it blocks the anandamide breakdown. Maybe. This is something we saw, but whether it's relevant to its activity, frankly I don't know. So this compound possibly will be used for rheumatoid arthritis. A company is already working on that ..." claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2004: "A drug made from an extract of cannabis has helped to reduce the pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. The drug, Sativex, has been developed by GW Pharmaceuticals, which is assessing the medical benefits of cannabis under a UK government licence. Tests of a spray form of the drug on 58 arthritis patients showed it helped reduce pain, and improve quality of sleep. Few people showed signs of side effects, the company said. ... Arthritis Research Campaign ... spokeswoman said: 'It's not going to cure the disease, but it will do a lot to allieviate the pain and suffering of people with rheumatoid arthritis. Cannabis is probably less harmful than other available painkillers. This idea that people with rheumatoid arthritis will be sitting around smoking joints and getting high is quite wrong; cannabis-based pain killers should be taken very seriously.' " – from "Cannabis drug cuts arthritis pain", BBC News, June 9 2004. Also see news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3790227.stm, Arthritis Research Campaign.

 

 

Asthma

also see Spasticity

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids in the treatment of ... asthma" claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

 

 

Autism

2009: "Cannabis has long-documented effects as an analgesic and an anxiety modulator. Best of all, it is safe. ... with a few little [Marinol] pills, everything turned around. But after about a week of playing around with the dosage, J began garnering a few glowing school reports ... The patients told me that Marinol couldn’t compare to marijuana, the plant, which has at least 60 cannabinoids to Marinol’s one. ... It's strange, I've come to think, that the virtues of such a useful and harmless botanical have been so clouded by stigma. Even the limited studies that have been done suggest marijuana's potential as an adjunctive therapy for cancer. ... The drugs that our insurance would pay for–and that the people around us would support without question–pose real risks to children. For now, we’re sticking with the weed." – "Why I Give My 9-year-old Pot" by Marie Myung-Ok Lee, May 11 2009
doublex.com/section/health-science/why-i-give-my-9-year-old-pot

2008: "Over a two-year period we did trials with Respirdol and Abilify (atypical antipsychotics), Ritalin and Adderall (amphetamines), Prosac, Paxil and Celexa (serotonin reuptake meds), and Tenex (Guanfacine), which is a blood pressure medication. We have a cupboard full of prescriptions for Sam. We tried different versions of the same type medications. We were encouraged to keep trying a medication until we knew for sure it worked or didn't work. The problem was he was having significant negative reactions to each medication he would try. ... Sam had been having another horrible day before the dose. After 30 minutes we could see the MC [Medical Cannabis] was beginning to have an effect. Sam’s eyes got a little red and got a bit droopy. His behavior became relaxed and far less anxious than he had been at the time we gave him the MC. He started laughing for the first time in weeks. My wife and I were astonished with the effect. It was as if all the anxiety, rage and hostility that had been haunting him melted away. That afternoon and evening his behavior was steady and calm. He started talking to us and interacting with us again. Sam’s was physically more relaxed and began initiating physical contact with the motivation being affection instead of aggression. It was amazing! He went to sleep that night with no problem and slept through the night. The MC continues to be a very effective medication. Sam aggression has decrease dramatically.... Sam's life has improved dramatically since he began using medical cannabis to treat his Autism Spectrum Disorder. Because Sam is doing better, we are all doing better. We have our life's back again." – "Using Medical Cannabis to Treat Autism Spectrum Disorder"
letfreedomgrow.com/cmu/SamsStory.htm

2003: "... a mother in Florida whose very large autistic son changed from a sweet, loving boy to a teenager who flew into unpredictable rages which 'were usually associated with self injury, aggression and property damage.' She went on, 'At times I had to lock myself in the bathroom; otherwise he would attack me. We gave him many medications, but nothing worked.' A friend suggested a solution: a brownie with marijuana baked into it. 'Soon after he ate the brownie,' she said, 'my son's anxiety disappeared, and his sweet, loving behavior returned. He shows no signs of being under the influence of a drug. He now receives one marijuana brownie and several doses of Marinol, which contains the active ingredient in marijuana, each day. This has clearly saved my child's life and my family’s life.' ... Of all drugs, the psychotropic drugs are among the least useful and most dangerous, and the benefit/risk profile of medical marijuana seems fairly benign in comparison. ... 'I know it's not the end-all answer, but it's been the best answer for the longest time for us in [comparison] to ALL the other medications. I cannot tell you how many months we would go on a medication wondering if it was doing anything at all. Here we can see the difference in 30 to 60 minutes.' ... 'My son (who is almost nine years old) has been on medications to address his severe autistic behaviors ... None of the medications has ever made a difference, except making his behaviors worse ... A few months ago we tried the prescritipn drug Marinol and noticed a drop in the severe epsiodes, no fits and little to no aggression toward his teacher and family members on a daily basis. A few weeks ago we started him on cannabis and stopped Marinol. Hew still has days when he gets angry and moody, but we can adjust the dose to help him through those days ... I feel much more comfortable administering cannabis than something like Riserdal.' "
autism.com/ari/editorials/ed_marijuana.htm

2002: "She gave me some cupcakes and told me to give one to James when life was tough, and if he needed it, give him another. Snap your fingers, a miracle happened for us! No more rage, reduced anxiety, no constant deafening noise and no house rocking and rolling. Those cupcakes had marijuana baked into them. This marijuana was left over from a dying wolf dog named Sam. Sam was the family pet, suffering with a brain tumor. My friend eased her dying dog by putting marijuana into his food. The cupcakes were made with left overs after Sam's dying. So, really, Sam saved my son's life, and our family's life. My son now uses 2 1/2 mg of Marinol up to four times a day, and one brownie up to four times a day. We try to keep the dose to a minimum, because many days he is able to get by on less medication. When he has not had enough medication we have Los Tormiento, a storm. We are able to recover now, but in the past this was not the case. ... James D. has no discernible side effects from the marijuana, and that cannot be said about previous medications we have tried. Most of the drugs used for behavioral control with the developmentally disabled are riddled with side effects, whether an SSRI (luvox, celexa, paxil), or one of the anti-psychotic/tranquilizers (Haldol, Risperdal, Thorazine); sometimes Ritalin and blood pressure medications are added. ... her son's use of cannabis, recommended by a physician, comes after years of trial and failure of conventional psychotropic medications, diet, holistic medicine, behavior modification and other therapies. ... the boy ate portions of muffins that had been prepared with marijuana. 'Within half an hour, actually 35 minutes, of the first dose, it was a miracle,' she said." – "The Sam Project: James D."
letfreedomgrow.com/articles/james_d.htm

 

 

Botany

2005: "AS POLICE and dope smokers know, there are two types of cannabis. Cannabis sativa sativa is mainly used to make hemp, while the indica subspecies is prized for its tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, which produces the 'high'. But now Australian researchers have discovered a third type of cannabis, called rasta. Simon Gilmore of the Canberra Institute of Technology catagorised 196 sample plants according to the DNA in their mitochondria and chloroplasts. The samples included plants grown for drugs and hemp as well as wild varieties from Europe, Asia, Africa, Mexico and Jamaica. The results showed three distinct 'races' of cannabis. In central Asia the THC-rich indica predominated, while in western Europe sativa was more common. In India, south-east Asia, Africa, Mexico and Jamaica the rasta variant predominated. It looks similar to the sativa subspecies, but generally contains higher levels of THC." – "Rasta lends its name to a third type of cannabis", New Scientist, Sept 20 2005, pg 12.
(Editor's note: "Rasta" is actually a fourth strain of cannabis. The third strain is called "Ruderalis" and is native to Russia.)

Erowid Cannabis Vault: Cultivation
erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_cultivation.shtml

How to Grow Medical Marijuana by Todd McCormick
drugsense.org/mcwilliams/www.growmedicine.com/pdf/How2grow.pdf

 

 

Brain

also see Alzheimer's, Cancer medicine, Cerebral Palsy, Headache, Neurological Disorders, Pain, Parkinson's, Stroke

2013: "A new study from Harvard University may help dismiss concerns about the link between marijuana use and schizophrenia. While many still debate the potential for marijuana to cause schizophrenia, researchers at Harvard Medical School say there has 'yet to be conclusive evidence that cannabis use may cause psychosis.' Their latest study, published last week in the journal Schizophrenia Research, adds support to the role of genetic factors in schizophrenia, and that marijuana use alone does not increase the risk of developing the disorder. 'In summary, we conclude that cannabis does not cause psychosis by itself. In genetically vulnerable individuals, while cannabis may modify the illness onset, severity and outcome, there is no evidence from this study that it can cause the psychosis.' The team, led by Lynn DeLisi, MD, Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, compared the family histories of 108 schizophrenia patients and 171 individuals without schizophrenia to determine whether cannabis use was a factor in developing the disorder. They found that a family history of schizophrenia increased the risk of developing schizophrenia, regardless of whether or not an individual used cannabis. The authors say further studies should investigate whether marijuana can interact with genetic factors to affect the age at which schizophrenia develops. However, the latest findings provide enough evidence for Dr. DeLisi and her team to conclude that cannabis 'is unlikely to be the cause of illness.' "
"Marijuana Does Not Cause Schizophrenia, Harvard Study Finds" by Leaf Science, Dec 8 2013

2010: "A combination of compounds in marijuana could help fight off a particularly deadly form of brain cancer, preliminary research suggests. Researchers at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute (CPMCRI) combined the non-psychoactive Cannabis compound, cannabidiol (CBD), with 9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (9-THC), the primary psychoactive active ingredient in Cannabis. They found the combination boosts the inhibitory effects of 9-THC on glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive form of brain tumor. 'Our study not only suggests that combining these two compounds creates a synergistic effect but it also helps identify molecular mechanisms at work here, and that may lead to more effective treatments for glioblastoma and potentially other aggressive cancers', said Sean McAllister, a scientist at CPMCRI and the lead author of the study." – "Marijuana compounds may help fight brain cancer", Jan 16 2010

2009: "Functional neuroimaging studies suggest a modulation of global and prefrontal metabolism both during the resting state and after the administration of THC/marijuana cigarettes. Minimal evidence of major effects of cannabis on brain structure has been reported." – "Neuroimaging in cannabis use: a systematic review of the literature" by R Martin-Santos, A B Fagundo, J A Crippa, Z Atakan, S Bhattacharyya, P Allen, P Fusar-Poli, S Borgwardt, M Seal, G F Busatto, P McGuire, Psychological Medicine, July 23 2009, pgs 1-17

2007: "Smoking pot won't make you crazy, but trying to find the truth behind the recent rash of headlines regarding a supposed link between cannabis and mental illness might. According to the Associated Press and other news sources, a new study in the British medical journal The Lancet reports that smoking cannabis – even occasionally – can increase one's risk of becoming psychotic. It sounds alarming at first, but a closer look at the evidence reveals that there's less here than the headlines imply. First, there is no new study. The paper published in The Lancet is a meta-analysis – a summary of seven studies that previously appeared in other journals, including some that were published decades ago. Second, the touted association between cannabis and mental illness is small–about the same size as the link between head injury and psychosis. Finally, despite what some new sources suggest, this association is hardly proof of a cause-and-effect relationship between cannabis and psychosis ... In fact, investigators actually reported that cannabis use was associated with a slight increase in psychotic outcomes. However, the authors emphasized (even if many in the media did not) that this small association does not reflect a causal relationship. Cannabis use can correlate with mental illness for many reasons. People often turn to cannabis to alleviate the symptoms of distress. A recent study performed in Germany showed that cannabis offsets certain cognitive declines in schizophrenic patients. Another study shows that psychotic symptoms predict later use of cannabis, suggesting that people might turn to the plant for help rather than become ill after use. Perhaps the most impressive evidence against the cause-and-effect relationship concerns the unvarying rate of psychoses across different eras and different countries. People are no more likely to be psychotic in Canada or the United States (two nations where large percentages of citizens use cannabis) than they are in Sweden or Japan (where self-reported marijuana use is extremely low). Even after the enormous popularity of cannabis in the 1960s and 1970s, rates of psychotic disorders haven't increased." – "Interpreting Hazy Warnings About Pot and Mental Illness" by Paul Armentano, Mitch Earleywine, Aug 7 2007.

2007: "There was an increased risk of any psychotic outcome in individuals who had ever used cannabis. Findings were consistent with a dose-response effect, with greater risk in people who used cannabis most frequently. Results of analyses restricted to studies of more clinically relevant psychotic disorders were similar. Depression, suicidal thoughts, and anxiety outcomes were examined separately. Findings for these outcomes were less consistent, and fewer attempts were made to address non-causal explanations, than for psychosis. A substantial confounding eff ect was present for both psychotic and affective outcomes. Interpretation: The evidence is consistent with the view that cannabis increases risk of psychotic outcomes independently of confounding and transient intoxication effects, although evidence for aff ective outcomes is less strong. The uncertainty about whether cannabis causes psychosis is unlikely to be resolved by further longitudinal studies such as those reviewed here. However, we conclude that there is now suffi cient evidence to warn young people that using cannabis could increase their risk of developing a psychotic illness later in life." – "Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review", by Theresa H M Moore, Stanley Zammit, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Thomas R E Barnes, Peter B Jones, Margaret Burke, Glyn Lewis, The Lancet, 370: pgs 319-328, 2007.

2006: "U.S. scientists have discovered the active ingredient in marijuana interferes with synchronized activity between neurons in the hippocampus of rats. The authors suggest action of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, might explain why marijuana impairs memory. Gyorgy Buzsaki and colleagues at Rutgers University recorded the activity of multiple neurons in the hippocampus of rats. Normally neurons in that region form groups that fire action potentials, or nerve impulses, together at about 4-10 times per second. But when the authors injected THC, or a related synthetic drug, into the hippocampus, that synchrony was disrupted. The researchers said the drugs did not change the total number of action potentials produced, just their tendency to occur at the same time. Animals with less synchronized neural activity under the drug performed less well in a standard test of memory, suggesting synchronized neural firing is important for normal hippocampal function." – "Study: Marijuana may affect neuron firing", Nov 29 2006

2006: "Cannabinoids impair hippocampus-dependent memory in both humans and animals, but the network mechanisms responsible for this effect are unknown. Here we show that the cannabinoids 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and CP55940 decreased the power of theta, gamma and ripple oscillations in the hippocampus of head-restrained and freely moving rats. These effects were blocked by a CB1 antagonist. The decrease in theta power correlated with memory impairment in a hippocampus-dependent task. By simultaneously recording from large populations of single units, we found that CP55940 severely disrupted the temporal coordination of cell assemblies in short time windows (<100 ms) yet only marginally affected population firing rates of pyramidal cells and interneurons. The decreased power of local field potential oscillations correlated with reduced temporal synchrony but not with firing rate changes. We hypothesize that reduced spike timing coordination and the associated impairment of physiological oscillations are responsible for cannabinoid-induced memory deficits." claims David Robbe, Sean M Montgomery, Alexander Thome, Pavel E Rueda-Orozco, Bruce L McNaughton, György Buzsaki, "Cannabinoids reveal importance of spike timing coordination in hippocampal function", Nov 19 2006

2006: "Although differences were observed between subjects who used cannabis during adolescence and those who did not, no finding indicated pathological change. Regions of higher ADC, putative evidence of atrophy, were not present, although regions of significantly lower ADC were. While low FA would be indicative of less white matter integrity, particularly with respect to fiber direction, all FA differences in this study were higher values in cannabis users than non-users. ... Thus, these data lead to the likely conclusion that cannabis use, in at least moderate amounts, during adolescence does not appear to be neurotoxic ..." claims Lynn E DeLisi, Hilary C Bertisch, Kamila U Szulc, Magda Majcher, Kyle Brown, Arthika Bappal, Babak A Ardekani, "A preliminary DTI study showing no brain structural change associated with adolescent cannabis use", Harm Reduction Journal, May 9 2008

2005: "A recent study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests that smoking pot can make the brain grow. Though most drugs inhibit the growth of new brain cells, injections of a synthetic cannibinoid have had the opposite effect in mice in a study performed at the University of Saskatchewan. ... Many drugs – heroin, cocaine, and the more common alcohol and nicotine – inhibit the growth of these new cells. It was thought that marijuana did the same thing, but this new research suggests otherwise. ... The researchers found that rats treated with HU-210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] on a regular basis showed neurogenesis – the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus. A current hypothesis suggests depression may be triggered when the hippocampus grows insufficient numbers of new brain cells. If true, HU-210 could offer a treatment for such mood disorders by stimulating this growth." reports Juanita King from "science: Study shows marijuana increases brain cell growth", The Peak, Oct 31 2005. Study Text, PDF

2005: "The relentless influx of emails, cellphone calls and instant messages received by modern workers can reduce their IQ by more than smoking marijuana, suggests UK research. ... says Glenn Wilson, a psychiatrist at the University of London, UK, who carried out the study, sponsored by Hewlett-Packard." reports Will Knight from "'Info-mania' dents IQ more than marijuana", New Scientist, Apr 22 2005

2004: "After studying more than 2000 users and non-users aged between 14 and 24, Jim van Los of the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands concludes ... 21 per cent of cannabis users in his sample had psychotic symptoms, compared with 15 per cent of non-users. The more often people used cannabis, the stronger the effect. The risk appears greatest for those with a predisposition to psychosis. In people with mild signs of psychosis at the start of the study, 51 per cent of users developed symptoms compared with 26 per cent of non-users. However, several other reviews have come to a different conclusion. In 1998, a French government study found that cannabis was the least dangerous of all potentially addictive drugs." – "Cannabis use linked to psychotic experiences", New Scientist, Dec 4 2004, pg 5.

2004: "A cannabis-like substance produced by the brain may dampen delusional or psychotic experiences, rather than trigger them. Heavy cannabis use has been linked to psychosis in the past, leading researchers to look for a connection between the brain's natural cannabinoid system and schizophrenia. Sure enough, when Markus Leweke of the University of Cologne, Germany, and Andrea Giuffrida and Danielle Piomelli of the University of California, Irvine, looked at levels of the natural cannabis-like substance anandamide, they were higher in people with schizophrenia than in healthy controls. The team measured levels of anandamide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 47 people suffering their first bout of schizophrenia, but who had not yet taken any drugs for it, and 26 people who had symptoms of psychosis and have a high risk of schizophrenia. Compared with 84 healthy volunteers, levels were six times as high in people with symptoms of psychosis and eight times as high in those with schizophrenia. 'This is a massive increase in anandamide levels,' Leweke told the National Cannabis and Mental Illness Conference in Melbourne, Australia, last week. And that is just in the CSF. Levels could be a hundred times higher in the synapses, where nerve signalling is taking place, he says. ... But were the high anandamide levels triggering the psychotic symptoms or a response to them? Leweke and his colleagues found, to their surprise, that the more severe people's schizophrenia was the lower their anandamide levels. The team's theory is that rather than triggering psychosis, the substance is released in response to psychotic symptoms to help control them. People with the worst symptoms might be unable to produce sufficient anandamide to prevent them. At some point in their lives, between 5 and 30 per cent of healthy people have had symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations, which can be triggered by something as simple as sleep deprivation. 'All of us are potentially psychotic,' says David Castle of the University of Melbourne. So for the body to have a system that prevents these experiences getting out of hand makes sense, he says. ... The new findings suggest antipsychotic drugs could be developed that target the anandamide system, but it will not be simple. The active ingredient in cannabis, THC, binds to anandamide receptors. But people with schizophrenia who use cannabis actually have more severe and frequent psychotic episodes than those who do not. This may be because THC makes anandamide receptors less sensitive. Leweke's team also found anandamide levels lowest in people with schizophrenia who used cannabis more frequently, suggesting it may disrupt the system in other ways too. Up to 60 per cent of people with schizophrenia use cannabis. A study by Castle, also reported at the Melbourne meeting, has found that people use the drug to get rid of unpleasant emotions associated with the disease such as anxiety and depression." reports Rachel Nowak from "Brain may produce its own antipsychotic drug", New Scientist, Aug 30 2004.

2003: "Smoking marijuana will certainly affect perception, but it does not cause permanent brain damage, researchers from the University of California at San Diego said Friday in a study. 'The findings were kind of a surprise. One might have expected to see more impairment of higher mental function,' said Dr. Igor Grant, a UCSD professor of psychiatry and the study's lead author. Other illegal drugs, or even alcohol, can cause brain damage. His team analyzed data from 15 previously published, controlled studies into the impact of long-term, recreational cannabis use on the neurocognitive ability of adults. The studies tested the mental functions of routine pot smokers, but not while they were actually high, Grant said. The results, published in the July issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, show that marijuana has only a marginally harmful long-term effect on learning and memory. No effect at all was seen on other functions, including reaction time, attention, language, reasoning ability, and perceptual and motor skills. ... The UCSD analysis of studies involving 704 long-term cannabis users and 484 nonusers was sponsored by a state-supported program that oversees research into the use of cannabis to treat certain diseases. ... The UCSD research team said the problems observed in learning and forgetting suggest that long-term marijuana use results in selective memory defects, but said the impact was of a very small magnitude. 'If we barely find this tiny effect in long-term heavy users of cannabis, then we are unlikely to see deleterious side effects in individuals who receive cannabis for a short time in a medical setting,' Grant said." reports Walter Cronkite, "Pot Doesn't Harm Brain, Study Shows", June 30 2003

2002: "The link between regular cannabis use and later depression and schizophrenia has been significantly strengthened by three new studies. ... One of the key conclusions of the research is that people who start smoking cannabis as adolescents are at the greatest risk of later developing mental health problems. Another team calculates that eliminating cannabis use in the UK population could reduce cases of schizophrenia by 13 per cent. Until now, say Rey and Tennant, there was 'a dearth of reliable evidence' to support the idea that cannabis use could cause schizophrenia or depression. That lack of good evidence 'has handicapped the development of rational public health policies,' according to one of the research groups, led by George Patton at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Melbourne, Australia. The reason for the link is unclear. Social consequences of frequent cannabis use include educational failure and unemployment, which could increase the risk of depression. "However, because the risk seems confined largely to daily users, the question about a direct pharmacological effect remains," says Patton. ... The new analysis revealed a dose-dependant relationship between the frequency of cannabis use and schizophrenia. This held true in men with no psychotic symptoms before they started using cannabis, suggesting they were not self-medicating. Finally, researchers led by Terrie Moffitt at King's College London, UK, analysed comprehensive data on over 1000 people born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972 and 1973. They found that people who used cannabis by age 15 were four times as likely to have a diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder (a milder version of schizophrenia) at age 26 than non-users. But when the number of psychotic symptoms at age 11 was controlled for, this increased risk dropped to become non-significant. This suggests that people already at greater risk of later developing mental health problems are also more likely to smoke cannabis. The total number of high quality studies on cannabis use and mental health disorders remains small, stress Rey and Tennant. And it is still not clear whether cannabis can cause these conditions in people not predisposed by genetic factors, for example, to develop them." claims Emma Young from "Cannabis link to mental illness strengthened", New Scientist news service, Nov 21 2002.

2002: "Current marijuana use had a negative effect on global IQ score only in subjects who smoked 5 or more joints per week. A negative effect was not observed among subjects who had previously been heavy users but were no longer using the substance. We conclude that marijuana does not have a long-term negative impact on global intelligence. Whether the absence of a residual marijuana effect would also be evident in more specific cognitive domains such as memory and attention remains to be ascertained. ... For comparison, an IQ decrement of 5 points has been observed in children exposed prenatally to 3 alcoholic drinks per day, of 3.75 points in offspring exposed prenatally to cocaine and of 2.6 points after low lead exposure. ... Although the heavy current users experienced a decrease in IQ score, their scores were still above average at the young adult assessment (mean 105.1). If we had not assessed preteen IQ, these subjects would have appeared to be functioning normally. Only with knowledge of the change in IQ score does the negative impact of current heavy use become apparent." claims Peter Fried, Barbara Watkinson, Deborah James, and Robert Gray, "Current and former marijuana use: preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of effects on IQ in young adults," Canadian Medical Association Journal, Apr 2 2002, 166(7), pg 887, 890.

2002: "Do decades of dope-smoking wreck cannabis users' memory and concentration? Or is this just another anti-marijuana myth? This long-running debate reopened this week with the publication of a US government-funded study which claims that smoking cannabis daily for 20 years or more impairs memory and attention. Its findings are contradicted by others that have revealed no long-term effects. The latest research involved 102 cannabis smokers in Seattle, Farmington in Connecticut and Miami. Half had smoked for an average of 24 years. The other half, described as 'short-term'users, had smoked for 10 years on average. Both groups reported smoking about two joints a day. In tests such as memorising a list of 15 words, the long-term users recalled 8.5 words on average, 2.5 fewer than both the short-term users and 31 non-users. The long-term users were also slower at mental arithmetic. But in in other tasks, such as sorting cards, they were just as quick. claims Kurt Kleiner from "The war on weed: Controversy still rages over whether cannabis damages the brain", New Scientist news service, Mar 9 2002.

2002: "The neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids may have potential clinical relevance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular ischemia and stroke." claims Gregory T Carter and Patrick Weydt from "Cannabis: Old medicine with new promise for neurological disorders"

2001: "I am the mother of a 21-year-old male who was diagnosed with a serious mental illness at 17 years. He had suffered with this illness since 5th grade, a thought disorder that he is unable to control which includes suicidal thoughts. ... After three different facilities and uncountable medications, different opinions, no has really said they had treated this condition. [This condition] usually comes into view when the person is on death row. ... He has been on medications that caused him to be unable to read due to loss of vision, medications that made him more paranoid, to be incontinent, to be unable to function. ... Out of desperation to be free of the prison his mind creates at times, he smoked marijuana and says it is the only time he is totally free of these thoughts. ... He seriously uses this with a couple of other meds daily with good results. He doesn't stumble around or look dazed. He is clear-eyed and plain spoken.... There has not to my knowledge ever been a death recorded from this drug, but alcohol and cigarettes have killed many. ...If this one plant that God created for us can be used, let's not withhold it causing undue stress and paranoid feelings for these people." claims anonymous mother from "Patient Story - Mental Illness", June 26 2001.

1999: "There were no significant differences in cognitive decline between heavy users, light users, and nonusers of cannabis. There were also no male-female differences in cognitive decline in relation to cannabis use. The authors conclude that over long time periods, in persons under age 65 years, cognitive decline occurs in all age groups. This decline is closely associated with aging and educational level but does not appear to be associated with cannabis use." claims Constantine G Lyketsos, Elizabeth Garrett, Kung-Yee Liang, and James C Anthony, "Cannabis Use And Cognitive Decline In Persons Under 65 Years Of Age", American Journal of Epidemiology, vol 149, no 9, pgs 794-800.

1998: "The neuroprotective actions of cannabidiol and other cannabinoids were examined in rat cortical neuron cultures exposed to toxic levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate toxicity was reduced by both cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive constituent of marijuana, and the psychotropic cannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabinoids protected equally well against neurotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, 2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid receptors, or kainate receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-induced toxicity has been shown to be calcium dependent; this study demonstrates that 2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid/kainate receptor-type neurotoxicity is also calcium-dependent, partly mediated by voltage sensitive calcium channels. The neuroprotection observed with cannabidiol and THC was unaffected by cannabinoid receptor antagonist, indicating it to be cannabinoid receptor independent. Previous studies have shown that glutamate toxicity may be prevented by antioxidants. Cannabidiol, THC and several synthetic cannabinoids all were demonstrated to be antioxidants by cyclic voltametry. Cannabidiol and THC also were shown to prevent hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage as well as or better than other antioxidants in a chemical (Fenton reaction) system and neuronal cultures. Cannabidiol was more protective against glutamate neurotoxicity than either ascorbate or -tocopherol, indicating it to be a potent antioxidant. These data also suggest that the naturally occurring, nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol, may be a potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative neurological disorders such as cerebral ischemia." reports AJ Hampson, M Grimaldi, J Axelrod, D Wink from "Cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), vol 95, no 14, July 7 1998.

1996: "Myth: Marijuana causes brain damage. The truth: This claim is bases on a 20-year-old study in which two rhesus monkeys were exposed to continuous massive doses of THC – up to 200 times the psychoactive dose for humans. It has never been replicated, and there is no evidence anywhere that marijuana users suffer brain damage." claims Ira Glasser, Executive Director, American Civil Liberties Union, from "More Reefer Madness" by Glasser, Visions of Liberty #8, Aug. 25, 1996.

1992: A study by Gordon T. Pryor and Charles Rebert at SRI International in Menlo Park, California failed to find any evidence of brain damage in rhesus monkeys exposed to cannabis. Article: "Chronic Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Rhesus Monkey II: Effects on Progressive Ratio and Conditioned Position Responding", by Merle Paule, et al, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, #260, 1992, pgs. 213-222.

1991: Dr. David Blum of UCLA claims a Partnership for a Drug Free America (PDFA) Public Service Announcement (PSA) that shows a near-flatline brainwave electroencephalogram (EEG) of a cannabis user is not accurate. Dr. Blum is one of several doctors to complain that the brainwaves in the PDFA PSA were not those of a cannabis user. The producer of the PDFA PSA admits the EEG is actually that of a person in a coma or unconscious, but claims that, in a drug war, the "ends justify the means".

1991: Experimental exposure to cannabis smoke "does not compromise the general health of the rhesus monkey." concludes a study headed by Dr. William Slikker, Jr. at the National Center for Toxicological Research in Arkansas. The study failed to find any evidence of brain damage in rhesus monkeys exposed to cannabis. "Chronic Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Rhesus Monkey", by William Slikker, Jr, et al, Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, #17, 1991, pgs. 321-322.

1989: "Whether the drug causes brain or other physical damage is much debated." claims American Medical Association Home Medical Encyclopedia, published by Reader's Digest, 1989.

1987: "... there are several reports of damaged brain cells and changes in brainwave readings in monkeys smoking marijuana, but neurological and neuropsychological tests in Greece, Jamiaca, and Costa Rica found no evidence of functional brain damage." claims Lester A Grinspoon, M.D., "Marijuana", The Harvard Medical School Mental Health Letter, Nov. 1987, pg. 3.

1978: "Federally funded studies of long-tern users of high-potency marijuana in three foreign countries showed no difference between the health, ability to work, and brain function of users and non-users, a number of researchers said ... Dr Max Fink of department of psychiatry of the State University of New York at Stoney Brook ... and ... Dr Alfred M Freedman, insisted all the results clearly showed that there is no brain damage from long-term marijuana smoking. ... Drs Paul Satz and Jack M Fletcher of the University of Florida and Louis W Sutker of University of Victoria found after giving 17 psychological and brain function tests to 41 users that ' chronic marijuana use is not associated with permanent or irreversible impairment in high brain functions or intelligence.' " reports Stuart Auerbach in "Studies See No Health Effect of Pot Smoking, Researchers Say", Washington Post, Jan 28 1978.

"For THC, the cannabinoid synthesized by cannabis sativa and indica, and andandamide, the cannabinoid synthesized in the central nervous systems of most animals on Earth, the receptor antagonist is called SR141716. SR141716 is like 'anti-marijuana' – it enhances the same memory functions that the natural brain cannabinoid anandamide and THC inhibit through the cannabinoid receptor. SR141716 improves short term memory in rodents by blocking the CB1 cannabinoid receptor from binding to andandamide, not just THC. But anandamide is made by the brain naturally. Why would the brain be making a chemical – andandamide – that seems to inhibit short-term memory? This question is partly answered by the effect of SR141716 on the sleep cycles of rats. SR141716 administered to rats interrupts their sleep cycles, causing a deficit in both short-wave and REM sleep. This research indicates that cannabinoids are important in the brain's regulation of the sleeping process. The cost of improving short-term memory by blocking cannabinoids from the brain is deficient and delayed slow-wave and REM sleep. In studying marijuana, we have learned something important about the brain. Inhibition of short-term memory-related processes occurring ion the hippocampus might be necessary for a healthy sleep cycle." claims Los Angeles Cannabis Resource Center from "Cannabinoids in the brain".

Cannabis.net
Cannabis, Cannabinoids and the Brain cannabis.net/refs/index.html

 

 

Cancer

includes Leukemia, Lymphoma

 

Cancer medicine

Also see Appetite, Cancer safety, Chemotherapy, Nausea

2010: "A combination of compounds in marijuana could help fight off a particularly deadly form of brain cancer, preliminary research suggests. Researchers at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute (CPMCRI) combined the non-psychoactive Cannabis compound, cannabidiol (CBD), with 9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (9-THC), the primary psychoactive active ingredient in Cannabis. They found the combination boosts the inhibitory effects of 9-THC on glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive form of brain tumor. 'Our study not only suggests that combining these two compounds creates a synergistic effect but it also helps identify molecular mechanisms at work here, and that may lead to more effective treatments for glioblastoma and potentially other aggressive cancers', said Sean McAllister, a scientist at CPMCRI and the lead author of the study." – "Marijuana compounds may help fight brain cancer", Jan 16 2010

2007: "Cannabis may be bad for the lungs, but the active ingredient in marijuana may help combat lung cancer, new research suggests. In lab and mouse studies, the compound, known as THC, cut lung tumor growth in half and helped prevent the cancer from spreading, says Anju Preet, PhD, a Harvard University researcher in Boston who tested the chemical. ... Moreover, other early research suggests the cannabis compound could help fight brain, prostate, and skin cancers as well, Preet says. The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. THC seeks out, attaches to, and activates two specific endocannabinoids that are present in high amounts on lung cancer cells, Preet says. This revs up their natural anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation can promote the growth and spread of cancer. In the new study, the researchers first demonstrated that THC inhibited the growth and spread of cells from two different lung cancer cell lines and from patient lung tumors. Then, they injected THC into mice that had been implanted with human lung cancer cells. After three weeks, tumors shrank by about 50%, compared with tumors in untreated mice." reports Charlene Laino from "Marijuana May Fight Lung Tumors", Apr 17 2007
also see norml.org/news/2007/04/19/pot-s-active-ingredient-halts-lung-cancer-growth-study-says, Apr 19 2007

2006: "delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exhibits anti-tumor effects on various cancer cell types, but its use in chemotherapy is limited by its psychotropic activity. We investigated the anti-tumor activities of other plant cannabinoids, i.e. cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidiol-acid and THC-acid, and assessed whether there is any advantage in using Cannabis extracts (enriched in either cannabidiol or THC) over pure cannabinoids. Results obtained in a panel of tumor cell lines clearly indicate that, of the five natural compounds tested, cannabidiol is the most potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth (IC50 between 6.0 and 10.6 µM), with significantly lower potency in noncancer cells. The cannabidiol-rich extract was equipotent to cannabidiol, whereas cannabigerol and cannabichromene followed in the rank of potency. Both cannabidiol and the cannabidiol-rich extract inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors obtained by subcutaneous injection into athymic mice of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma or rat v-K-ras-transformed thyroid epithelial cells, and reduced lung metastases deriving from intra-paw injection of MDA-MB-231 cells. Judging from several experiments on its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of action, we propose that cannabidiol lacks a unique mode of action in the cell lines investigated. At least for MDA-MB-231 cells, however, our experiments indicate that cannabidiol effect is due to its capability of inducing apoptosis via: 1) direct or indirect activation of cannabinoid CB2 [cannabinoid receptor type-2] and vanilloid TRPV1 [transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1] receptors; and 2) cannabinoid/vanilloid receptor-independent elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. Our data support the further testing of cannabidiol and cannabidiol-rich extracts for the potential treatment of cancer. ... In conclusion, our data indicate that cannabidiol, and possibly Cannabis extracts enriched in this natural cannabinoid, represent a promising non-psychoactive antineoplastic strategy. In particular, for a highly malignant human breast carcinoma cell line we have shown here that cannabidiol and a cannabidiol-rich extract counteract cell growth both in vivo and in vitro as well as tumor metastasis in vivo. Cannabidiol exerts its effects on these cells through a combination of mechanisms that include either direct or indirect activation of CB2 and TRPV1 receptors, and induction of oxidative stress, all contributing to induce apoptosis. Additional investigations are required to understand the mechanism of the growth inhibitory action of cannabidiol in the other cancer cell lines studied here." claim Alessia Ligresti, Aniello Schiano Moriello, Katarzyna Starowicz, Isabel Matias, Simona Pisanti, Luciano De Petrocellis, Chiara Laezza, Giuseppe Portella, Maurizio Bifulco, Vincenzo Di Marzo, "Anti-tumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma", Endocannabinoid Research Group, Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, CNR Pozzuoli, Italy, May 25 2006.

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids ... tumor retardation have also been shown. ... There are several groups that have found it effective in reducing tumor growth. This is probably due to the same mechanism as before with the neuroprotection. It's probably not only neuroprotective; it's probably a protective agent in general. So, to a certain extent, the endocannabinoid system can be compared with the immune system. Now, the immune system obviously guards us against protein effects, viruses, and microbes, but not all damages. So just as our body protects itself with the immune system against microbes or viruses, it also tries to protect itself with other systems–and the endocannabinoid system is one of them. So I believe that it certainly acts against cancer cells. There is a very important group in Spain that has done some excellent work on that, and they're actually going into human work now with some cancers found in the brain. We have also done a little bit on that, and there is an Italian group that has done a lot of work on that. So, basically, it seems that this is one of the routes that our body uses to try and protect itself with–by acting on cancers using several different mechanisms, not just one." claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2005: "Tashkin controlled for tobacco use and calculated the relative risk of marijuana use resulting in lung and upper airwaves cancers. All the odds ratios turned out to be less than one (one being equal to the control group's chances)! Compared with subjects who had used less than one joint year, the estimated odds ratios for lung cancer were .78; for 1-10 j-yrs, .74; for 10-30 j-yrs, .85 for 30-60 j-yrs; and 0.81 for more than 60 j-yrs. The estimated odds ratios for oral/pharyngeal cancers were 0.92 for 1-10 j-yrs; 0.89 for 10-30 j-yrs; 0.81 for 30-60 j-yrs; and 1.0 for more than 60 j-yrs. 'Similar, though less precise results were obtained for the other cancer sites,' Tashkin reported. ... There was time for only one question, said the moderator, and San Francisco oncologist Donald Abrams, M.D., was already at the microphone: 'You don't see any positive correlation, but in at least one category [marijuana-only smokers and lung cancer], it almost looked like there was a negative correlation, i.e., a protective effect. Could you comment on that?' 'Yes,' said Tashkin. 'The odds ratios are less than one almost consistently, and in one category that relationship was significant, but I think that it would be difficult to extract from these data the conclusion that marijuana is protective against lung cancer. But that is not an unreasonable hypothesis.' " reports Fred Gardner from "Study: Smoking Marijuana Does Not Cause Lung Cancer", CounterPunch, July 2-4 2005.

2004: "Clinical research touted by the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research that shows marijuana's components can inhibit the growth of cancerous brain tumors is the latest in a long line of studies demonstrating the drug's potential as an anti-cancer agent. ... researchers at Madrid's Complutense University that found cannabis restricts the blood supply to glioblastoma multiforme tumors, an aggressive brain tumor ... the first experiment documenting pot's anti-tumor effects took place in 1974 at the Medical College of Virginia at the behest of the US government. The results of that study, reported in an Aug. 18, 1974, Washington Post newspaper feature, were that marijuana's psychoactive component, THC, 'slowed the growth of lung cancers, breast cancers and a virus-induced leukemia in laboratory mice, and prolonged their lives by as much as 36 percent.' ... secret - clinical trial in the mid-1990s. That study, conducted by the US National Toxicology Program to the tune of $2 million concluded that mice and rats administered high doses of THC over long periods had greater protection against malignant tumors than untreated controls. However, rather than publicize their findings, government researchers shelved the results, which only became public after a draft copy of its findings were leaked in 1997 to a medical journal which in turn forwarded the story to the national media. ... In 1998, a research team at Complutense's Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology discovered that THC can selectively induce program cell death in brain tumor cells without negatively impacting the surrounding healthy cells. Then in 2000, they reported in the journal Nature Medicine that injections of synthetic THC eradicated malignant gliomas (brain tumors) in one-third of treated rats, and prolonged life in another third by six weeks. Last year, researchers at the University of Milan in Naples, Italy, reported in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics that non-psychoactive compounds in marijuana inhibited the growth of glioma cells in a dose dependent manner, and selectively targeted and killed malignant cells through a process known as apoptosis. And finally, this month, researchers reported that marijuana's constituents inhibited the spread of brain cancer in human tumor biopsies from patients who had failed standard cancer therapies." reports Paul Armentano from "Report Supressed That Marijuana Components Can Inhibit Cancer Growth", Coastal Post, Oct 26 2004.

2004: "Who could imagine that cannabis might one day offer hope as a cure for cancer? The United States government, that’s who. ... recent publication of a trio of clinical studies and a pair of scientific reviews have effectively blown the lid off 'Cancergate,' and revealed that pot’s medical value may be far greater than ever presumed. ... Last year, five scientific journals published prominent articles trumpeting cannabinoids (compounds in marijuana) as potential anti-cancer agents. ... the first ever experiment documenting pot’s anti-tumor effects took place in 1974 at the Medical College of Virginia at the behest of the U.S. government. The results of that study, immortalized in an August 18, 1974 Washington Post newspaper feature, were that 'THC slowed the growth of lung cancers, breast cancers and a virus-induced leukemia in laboratory mice, and prolonged their lives by as much as 36 percent.' ... Madrid, Spain’s Complutense University, School of Biology ... led by investigator Manuel Guzman ... Guzman believes that enough favorable clinical evidence exists supporting pot’s anti-cancer properties to warrant clinical trials in humans. ... Guzman wrote in the October 2003 issue of Nature Reviews Cancer. 'Anti-tumor compounds should selectively affect tumor cells [and] it seems that cannabinoids can do this, as they kill [malignant] tumor cells but do not affect their non-transformed counterparts and might even protect them from cell death. ... As cannabinoids are relatively safe compounds, it would be desirable that clinical trials using cannabinoids ... could accompany [ongoing] laboratory studies to allow us to use these compounds in the treatment of cancer.' ... 'Cannabinoid research continues to show tremendous potential in the treatment of cancer,' summarizes University of Southern California professor Mitch Earleywine, author of the book Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. ... 'Let’s hope that our drug policy won’t stymie the battle against the second leading cause of death in America.' Indeed. Let’s not add a potential treatment for cancer to the ever-growing list of victims of pot prohibition." reports Paul Armentano from "Unlocking a Cure for Cancer – With Pot", Aug 17 2004.

2004: "Cannabinoids inhibit tumor angiogenesis in mice, but the mechanism of their antiangiogenic action is still unknown. Because the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis, here we studied whether cannabinoids affect it. As a first approach, cDNA array analysis showed that cannabinoid administration to mice bearing s.c. gliomas lowered the expression of various VEGF pathway-related genes. The use of other methods (ELISA, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy) provided additional evidence that cannabinoids depressed the VEGF pathway by decreasing the production of VEGF and the activation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, the most prominent VEGF receptor, in cultured glioma cells and in mouse gliomas. Cannabinoid-induced inhibition of VEGF production and VEGFR-2 activation was abrogated both in vitro and in vivo by pharmacological blockade of ceramide biosynthesis. These changes in the VEGF pathway were paralleled by changes in tumor size. Moreover, intratumoral administration of the cannabinoid 9-tetrahydrocannabinol to two patients with glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma) decreased VEGF levels and VEGFR-2 activation in the tumors. Because blockade of the VEGF pathway constitutes one of the most promising antitumoral approaches currently available, the present findings provide a novel pharmacological target for cannabinoid-based therapies." claims Cristina Blázquez, Luis González-Feria, Luis Álvarez, Amador Haro, M Llanos Casanova, Manuel Guzmán from "Cannabinoids Inhibit the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathway in Gliomas", Cancer Research #64, Aug 15 2004, pgs 5617-5623.

2002: "A study published in the July 2002 edition of the medical journal Blood found that THC and some other cannabinoids produced 'programmed cell death' in different varieties of human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines, thereby destroying the cancerous cells but leaving other cells unharmed. This reaffirms results by researchers at Madrid's Complutense University, who destroyed otherwise uncurable brain cancer tumors in rats by injecting them with THC." reports Dana Larsen, "THC destroys cancer cells, but the research is buried and ignored.", Sept 3 2002.

2002: "Before she [Franklyn C Nofziger's daughter] died she underwent heavy chemotherapy [for her lymphoma] that caused nausea, diarrhea and loss of appetite. None of the legal medications including the marijuana substitute Marinol helped to alleviate the symptoms. In desperation, we turned to marijuana to see if that would help. Fortunately, people know a lot more about where to find marijuana than people of my generation. And the marijuana did help reduce the side effects of the chemotherapy to the point where she regained her appetite and actually began putting on weight. Obviously, it did not save her life nor did we think it would. However, it made a portion of the last weeks of her life considerably more bearable both to her and to her family. Since then I have learned that marijuana can also help persons with glaucoma, the wasting symptoms of AIDS, multiple sclerosis and other afflictions. Because of this I have become an avid supporter of efforts to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. An administration that claims to be both compassionate and conservative should enthusiastically support legislation that truly is compassionate and that also returns rights to the states that the Tenth Amendment theoretically guarantees to them." – claimed Franklyn C Nofziger, "Former Reagan Aide Among Medical Marijuana Supporters" by Jim Burns, July 25 2002

2001: "... researchers in Madrid announced they had destroyed incurable brain cancer tumors in rats by injecting them with THC, the active ingredient in cannabis. ... The Madrid researchers reported in the March [2000] issue of "Nature Medicine" that they injected the brains of 45 rats with cancer cells, producing tumors whose presence they confirmed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the 12th day they injected 15 of the rats with THC and 15 with Win-55,212-2 a synthetic compound similar to THC. All the rats left untreated uniformly died 12-18 days after glioma (brain cancer) cell inoculation ... Cannabinoid (THC)-treated rats survived significantly longer than control rats. THC administration was ineffective in three rats, which died by days 16-18. Nine of the THC-treated rats surpassed the time of death of untreated rats, and survived up to 19-35 days. Moreover, the tumor was completely eradicated in three of the treated rats." The rats treated with Win-55,212-2 showed similar results. The Spanish researchers, led by Dr. Manuel Guzman of Complutense University, also irrigated healthy rats' brains with large doses of THC for seven days, to test for harmful biochemical or neurological effects. They found none." reports Raymond Cushing, "Pot Shrinks Tumors: Government Knew in 74"

2000: "Marijuana-like drugs eradicated some brain cancers in rats and helped other animals live longer, possibly hinting at a new approach for treating the disease ... The study dealt with gliomas, the most common category of cancer arising in the brain. Gliomas are highly lethal in people despite treatment with drugs, surgery and radiation. The rat study was published in the March issue of the journal Nature Medicine. It was conducted by scientists at the Complutense and Autonoma Universityersities in Madrid, Spain. They injected glioma cells into the brains of rats to produce tumors. Untreated rats died within 18 days. Other rats were treated with drug infusions for seven days through a tube leading to the tumor. Fifteen rats got infusions of THC, the main active component in marijuana. Tumors disappeared in three animals, and nine other rats outlived the untreated ones, surviving up to 35 days. When researchers used a different but similar drug, five of 15 rats became tumor-free and four others outlived untreated animals." – Associated Press, "Dope Ingredient May Fight Cancer", Feb 28, 2000.

1983: "[Inhaled] Marijuana has been shown to be effective for many cancer chemotherapy patients, safe dosage levels have been established and a dosage regimen which minimizes undesirable side effects has been devised and tested." claims California Research Advisory Panel, Annual Report of the California Research Advisory Panel, vol 14, submitted to the Governor and Legislature.

1974: "In 1974 researchers at the Medical College of Virginia, who had been funded by the National Institute of Health to find evidence that marijuana damages the immune system, found instead that THC slowed the growth of three kinds of cancer in mice – lung and breast cancer, and a virus-induced leukemia. ... The DEA quickly shut down the Virginia study and all further cannabis/tumor research, according to Jack Herer ..." reports Raymond Cushing, "Pot Shrinks Tumors: Government Knew in 74", americanmarijuana.org/pot.shrinks.tumors.html

Americans for Safe Access' "Cannabis and Cancer: Studies Showing an Anti-Cancer Effect"
safeaccess.ca/research/cancer.htm

 

Cancer safety

also see Comparative Pharmacological safety, Lung, Medicinal safety, Smoking safety

2009: "Frequent and/or long-term marijuana use may significantly increase a man's risk of developing the most aggressive type of testicular cancer, according to a study by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. The study results were published online Feb 9 in the journal Cancer. The researchers found that being a marijuana smoker at the time of diagnosis was associated with a 70 percent increased risk of testicular cancer. The risk was particularly elevated (about twice that of those who never smoked marijuana) for those who used marijuana at least weekly and/or who had long-term exposure to the substance beginning in adolescence. The results also suggested that the association with marijuana use might be limited to nonseminoma, a fast-growing testicular malignancy that tends to strike early, between ages 20 and 35, and accounts for about 40 percent of all testicular-cancer cases. ... The researchers emphasize that their results are not definitive, but rather open a door to more research questions. 'Our study is the first inkling that marijuana use may be associated with testicular cancer, and we still have a lot of unanswered questions,' [Stephen M] Schwartz said, such as why marijuana appears to be associated with only one type of testicular cancer. 'We need to conduct additional research to see whether the association can be observed in other populations' ... The National Cancer Institute, the National Institute on Drug Abuse and funds from the Hutchinson Center supported this research ... According to the National Cancer Institute, testicular cancer is very rare, accounting for only 1 percent of cancers in U.S. men. About 8,000 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer each year, and about 390 die of the disease annually." – "Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Risk of Testicular Cancer", Feb 9 2009. Related articles: "Association of Marijuana Use and the Incidence of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors", "Marijuana Linked to Aggressive Testicular Cancer"

2008: "Smoking marijuana (cannabis) does not increase the user's risk of head and neck cancer, according to a new study published in the March 2008 issue of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. The small sample study, authored by researchers from New Zealand and Great Britain, found that among 75 cases of head and neck cancer, the relative risk of smoking cannabis and contracting head and neck cancer in marijuana users was the same (1.0) as in those who had never smoked cannabis. These results differ from the relative risk of contracting cancer from smoking [tobacco] cigarettes (2.1) and the heavy consumption of alcohol (5.7), compared with those who abstained from those activities." – "Small study shows marijuana does not increase risk of head, neck cancer", Mar 5 2008

2005: "Marijuana smoking -'even heavy longterm use'- does not cause cancer of the lung, upper airwaves, or esophagus, Donald Tashkin reported at this year's meeting of the International Cannabinoid Research Society. Coming from Tashkin, this conclusion had extra significance for the assembled drug-company and university-based scientists (most of whom get funding from the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse). Over the years, Tashkin's lab at UCLA has produced irrefutable evidence of the damage that marijuana smoke wreaks on bronchial tissue. With NIDA's support, Tashkin and colleagues have identified the potent carcinogens in marijuana smoke, biopsied and made photomicrographs of pre-malignant cells, and studied the molecular changes occurring within them. It is Tashkin's research that the Drug Czar's office cites in ads linking marijuana to lung cancer. Tashkin himself has long believed in a causal relationship, despite a study in which Stephen Sidney examined the files of 64,000 Kaiser patients and found that marijuana users didn't develop lung cancer at a higher rate or die earlier than non-users. Of five smaller studies on the question, only two -involving a total of about 300 patients– concluded that marijuana smoking causes lung cancer. Tashkin decided to settle the question by conducting a large, prospectively designed, population-based, case-controlled study. 'Our major hypothesis,' he told the ICRS, 'was that heavy, longterm use of marijuana will increase the risk of lung and upper-airwaves cancers.' ... Exposure to marijuana was measured in joint years (joints per day x 365). Controls were found based on age, gender and neighborhood. Among them, 46% had never used marijuana, 31% had used less than one joint year, 12% had used 10-30 j-yrs, 2% had used 30-60 j-yrs, and 3% had used for more than 60 j-yrs. Tashkin controlled for tobacco use and calculated the relative risk of marijuana use resulting in lung and upper airwaves cancers. All the odds ratios turned out to be less than one (one being equal to the control group's chances)! Compared with subjects who had used less than one joint year, the estimated odds ratios for lung cancer were .78; for 1-10 j-yrs, .74; for 10-30 j-yrs, .85 for 30-60 j-yrs; and 0.81 for more than 60 j-yrs. The estimated odds ratios for oral/pharyngeal cancers were 0.92 for 1-10 j-yrs; 0.89 for 10-30 j-yrs; 0.81 for 30-60 j-yrs; and 1.0 for more than 60 j-yrs. ... 'So, in summary' Tashkin concluded, 'we failed to observe a positive association of marijuana use and other potential confounders.' " reports Fred Gardner from "Study: Smoking Marijuana Does Not Cause Lung Cancer", CounterPunch, July 2-4 2005.

2004: "Previous laboratory investigations, case reports, and a hospital-based case-control study have suggested that marijuana use may be a risk factor for squamous cell head and neck cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study to determine whether marijuana use is associated with the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Case subjects (n = 407) were 18–65-year-old residents of three counties in western Washington State who were newly diagnosed with OSCC from 1985 through 1995. Control subjects (n = 615), who were similar to the cases with respect to age and sex, were selected from the general population using random-digit telephone dialing. Lifetime histories of marijuana use and exposure to known OSCC risk factors were ascertained using a structured questionnaire. Information on genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase enzymes was obtained from assays on participant DNA. Odds ratios for associations with features of marijuana use were adjusted for sex, education, birth year, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. A similar proportion of case subjects (25.6%) and control subjects (24.4%) reported ever use of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.6–1.3). There were no trends in risk observed with increasing duration or average frequency of use or time since first or last use. No subgroup defined by known or suspected OSCC risk factors (age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and genetic polymorphisms) showed an increased risk. Marijuana use was not associated with OSCC risk in this large, population-based study." claims Karin A. Rosenblatt1, Janet R. Daling2,3, Chu Chen2,3, Karen J. Sherman4 and Stephen M. Schwartz, from "Marijuana Use and Risk of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma", Cancer Research #64, June 1 2004, pgs 4049-4054.

2004: "Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their endogenous counterparts were reported as useful analgetic agents to accompany primary cancer treatment by preventing nausea, vomiting, and pain and by stimulating appetite. Moreover, they have been shown to inhibit cell growth and to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that anandamide, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), HU-210, and Win55,212-2 promote mitogenic kinase signaling in cancer cells. Treatment of the glioblastoma cell line U373-MG and the lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H292 with nanomolar concentrations of THC led to accelerated cell proliferation that was completely dependent on metalloprotease and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity. EGFR signal transactivation was identified as the mechanistic link between cannabinoid receptors and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 as well as prosurvival protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) signaling. Depending on the cellular context, signal cross-communication was mediated by shedding of proAmphiregulin (proAR) and/or proHeparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) by tumor necrosis factor converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17). Taken together, our data show that concentrations of THC comparable with those detected in the serum of patients after THC administration accelerate proliferation of cancer cells instead of apoptosis and thereby contribute to cancer progression in patients." claims Stefan Hart, Oliver M Fischer, Axel Ullrich from "Cannabinoids Induce Cancer Cell Proliferation via Tumor Necrosis Factor -Converting Enzyme (TACE/ADAM17)-Mediated Transactivation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor", Cancer Research #64, Mar 15 2004, pgs 1943-1950.
See another summary of the above article

2003: "Although the inhalation of chemical toxins in cannabis smoke has been linked to bronchitis and other respiratory problems, it has not been shown to cause lung cancer or a higher death rate.” from "Marijuana Smoking Doesn't Lead to Higher Death Rate", O'Shaughnessy's Jouurnal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

2000: "Marijuana, unlike tobacco and alcohol, does not appear to cause head, neck, or lung cancer, says a researcher from Johns Hopkins Medical School in Baltimore who presented findings from a study here recently at a meeting of internal medicine physicians ... Daniel E. Ford, MD, tried to sort out the evidence by the lifestyles – including marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol use -- of 164 persons who were newly diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer compared to a group of 526 healthy persons living in the same area. ... According to Ford, he thought he would find an association between marijuana use and cancer, but "that the association would fall away when we corrected for tobacco use. That was not the case. The association was never there. 'And that surprised him because of the way marijuana is smoked: deep inhalations, with the smoke held in for effect. "It seemed natural that there would be some connection,' he tells WebMD." reports Peggy Peck, "Marijuana Unlikely to Cause Head, Neck, or Lung Cancer", WebMD, May 8 2000

2000: "Stephen Sidney, MD, at the Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, 3505 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611 ... confirmed that they found lower levels of cancer among the marijuana smokers when compared to their control group." American Journal of Public Health.

1999: "Recent reports of molecular and genetic alterations in marijuana users suggested that marijuana smoke might also activate CYP1A1 gene. Dr. Roth investigated this possibility using Hepa-1 cells and found that marijuana tar, and more specifically D9-THC, regulates the induction and function of CYP1A1 gene, an observation that is entirely novel. Transcriptional activation of CYP1A1 by D9-THC may help to explain the relatively high frequency of DNA mutations and mucosal abnormalities that occur in marijuana smokers. The inhalation of marijuana smoke delivers both nanogram concentrations of conventional PAHs and milligram quantities of D9-THC to the lung. Induction of CYP1A1 produced by D9-THC could result in greater activation of smoke-related procarcinogens and higher adduct-related injury. However, it is also possible that inhaled D9-THC competes for the active site of CYP1A1, paradoxically reducing the activation of procarcinogens." claims Dr Michael D Roth from "A Conference Summary on Pulmonary Pathophysiologic and Immune Consequences of Smoked Substance Abuse", National Institute on Drug Abuse.

1998: "I said, 'Do you know of any cases of marijuana-only smokers who had lung cancer?' [Dr Donald P Tashkin] said 'Yes, there is one.' Then he smiled, explaining, 'He was sixteen years old.' We both smiled, knowing a teenager could not possibly have sufficient exposure to marijuana smoke to cause lung cancer–his cancer was clearly due to some other cause." claims Martin Martinez from "Cannabis and Lung Cancer".

1997: "Marijuana Use and Mortality", American Journal of Public Health, April 1997.

1996: "THC was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, or TA1535 with or without rat and hamster liver S9 fractions. In cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, THC induced sister chromatid exchanges at the highest dose tested in the presence of S9; at this dose level, cell cycle delay indicative of toxicity was observed. THC did not induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells with or without S9 metabolic activation enzymes. In vivo, no increase in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was observed in the peripheral blood of male or female mice administered THC by gavage for 13 weeks. ... Under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of 1-trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in male or female F344/N rats administered 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of THC in male and female B6C3F1 mice based on the increased incidences of thyroid gland follicular cell adenomas in 125 mg/kg groups. Increased incidences of thyroid gland follicular cell hyperplasia occurred in male and female mice, and increased incidences of hyperplasia and ulcers of the forestomach were observed in male mice. The incidences of mammary gland fibroadenomas and uterine stromal polyps were decreased in dosed groups of female rats, as were the incidences of pancreatic adenomas, pituitary gland adenomas, and interstitial cell adenomas of the testis in dosed male rats and liver neoplasms in dosed mice. These decreases were likely related to lower body weights in dosed animals." – Abstract of "TR-446: Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 1-Trans-Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (CAS No. 1972-08-3) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies)", National Toxicology Program, US Department of Health and Human Services, Nov 1996.

1996: "Marijuana smokers have the same cancer risks as tobacco smokers, even though they may just smoke a few joints a day." claims "Monitoring the Future Study", National Institute of Drug Abuse, as reported by planet-know.net. (1)

1994: "Some forms of lung irritation may be more pronounced with chronic marijuana smoke, but no signs of cancer were seen seven months after the last dose" claims Dr William Slikker Jr, researcher for a 2-1/2 year study of cannabis consumption by youth for the National Center of Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR.

1988: "As of October 1988, no case of lung cancer has ever been attributed solely to marijuana use." claims Dr Donald P Tashkin.

1987: "Whatever temporary changes marijuana may produce in the immune system, they have not been found to increase the danger of infectious disease or cancer. If there were significant damage, we might expect to find a higher rate of these diseases among young people beginning in the 1960s, when marijuana first became popular. There is no evidence of that." claims Lester A Grinspoon, MD, "Marijuana", The Harvard Medical School Mental Health Letter, Nov 1987, pg 3.

1985: "The result is that there is a four-fold greater burden of tar on the lung from the smoke of a single marijuana joint compared to one cigarette when each type is smoked the way it's ordinarily smoked,' Tashkin said. Tashkin said he believes this poses a significant cancer risk, although there is no direct evidence that pot smokers actually suffer an unusually high incidence of lung cancer." – Associated Press review of Dr Donald P Tashkin's research published in New England Journal of Medicine.

1975: "Anticancer Activity of Cannabinoids", Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Sept 1975.

" 'Controlling for age, sex, race, education, alcohol consumption, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and passive smoking, the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was increased with marijuana use. These associations were stronger for subjects who were 55 years of age and younger.' claims Zuo-Feng Zhang, American Association for Cancer Research. 'If marijuana smoking has anything to do with smoking-related cancer, the oral cavity would be the first site being affected,' he said. For the study, performed while Zhang was working at New York's Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, researchers enrolled 173 patients with head or neck cancer as well as a comparison group of 176 cancer-free blood donors of similar age and sex. All study participants were questioned about their past use of marijuana, tobacco and alcohol, workplace and environmental exposure to possible carcinogens, and other aspects of their background and lifestyle. Frequency of marijuana use was categorized as never, less than or equal to once per day, and more than once per day. Duration of use was categorized as never, one to five years and more than five years. Among those who had ever used marijuana, the risk of head and neck cancer was 2.6 times greater than among those who had never used the drug. (Researchers arrived at this figure after adjusting for the effect of other risk factors, such as smoking and alcohol.) They also observed a dose-response effect of marijuana, with heavier users at higher cancer risk. Among people who reported smoking marijuana once per day, the risk of head and neck cancer was 2.1 times that of someone who never used it, while among those who reported smoking it more than once per day, the risk was 4.9 times that of those who had abstained. Furthermore, people who were current smokers of both tobacco and marijuana had by far the highest risk of head and neck cancer, indicating that the two substances work together synergistically to promote cancer development. Current users of both substances had 36 times the risk of head and neck cancer found in people who used neither."
See another summary of the original 2004 article

"Marihuana & lung cancer"
users.lycaeum.org/~sky/data/mj&cancer.html

"Marijuana And Lung Cancer"
cancer.allgreatwebsites.com/index.php?k=marijuana-and-lung-cancer

"Marijuana / Cancer Link"
sarnia.com/groups/antidrug/rltychck/cncrlink.html

 

 

Cannabidiol (CBD)

also see Cannabinoids, Tetra-Hydro-Cannabinol

2013: "Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by [the equivalent of] 40 percent during treatment. ... This is the first study, as far as we are aware, to demonstrate the impact of CBD on cigarette smoking. ... These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration." – "Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: Preliminary findings" by Celia JA Morgan, Ravi K Das, Alyssa Joye, H Valerie Curran, Sunjeev K Kamboj, Addictive Behaviors, vol 38 no 9, Sept 2013, pgs 2433-2436.

2010: "A combination of compounds in marijuana could help fight off a particularly deadly form of brain cancer, preliminary research suggests. Researchers at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute (CPMCRI) combined the non-psychoactive Cannabis compound, cannabidiol (CBD), with 9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (9-THC), the primary psychoactive active ingredient in Cannabis. They found the combination boosts the inhibitory effects of 9-THC on glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive form of brain tumor. 'Our study not only suggests that combining these two compounds creates a synergistic effect but it also helps identify molecular mechanisms at work here, and that may lead to more effective treatments for glioblastoma and potentially other aggressive cancers', said Sean McAllister, a scientist at CPMCRI and the lead author of the study." – "Marijuana compounds may help fight brain cancer", Jan 16 2010

2006: "We investigated the anti-tumor activities of other plant cannabinoids, i.e. cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidiol-acid and THC-acid, and assessed whether there is any advantage in using Cannabis extracts (enriched in either cannabidiol or THC) over pure cannabinoids. Results obtained in a panel of tumor cell lines clearly indicate that, of the five natural compounds tested, cannabidiol is the most potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth (IC50 between 6.0 and 10.6 µM), with significantly lower potency in noncancer cells. The cannabidiol-rich extract was equipotent to cannabidiol, whereas cannabigerol and cannabichromene followed in the rank of potency. Both cannabidiol and the cannabidiol-rich extract inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors obtained by subcutaneous injection into athymic mice of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma or rat v-K-ras-transformed thyroid epithelial cells, and reduced lung metastases deriving from intra-paw injection of MDA-MB-231 cells. Judging from several experiments on its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of action, we propose that cannabidiol lacks a unique mode of action in the cell lines investigated. At least for MDA-MB-231 cells, however, our experiments indicate that cannabidiol effect is due to its capability of inducing apoptosis via: 1) direct or indirect activation of cannabinoid CB2 [cannabinoid receptor type-2] and vanilloid TRPV1 [transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1] receptors; and 2) cannabinoid/vanilloid receptor-independent elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. Our data support the further testing of cannabidiol and cannabidiol-rich extracts for the potential treatment of cancer. ... In conclusion, our data indicate that cannabidiol, and possibly Cannabis extracts enriched in this natural cannabinoid, represent a promising non-psychoactive antineoplastic strategy. In particular, for a highly malignant human breast carcinoma cell line we have shown here that cannabidiol and a cannabidiol-rich extract counteract cell growth both in vivo and in vitro as well as tumor metastasis in vivo. Cannabidiol exerts its effects on these cells through a combination of mechanisms that include either direct or indirect activation of CB2 and TRPV1 receptors, and induction of oxidative stress, all contributing to induce apoptosis. Additional investigations are required to understand the mechanism of the growth inhibitory action of cannabidiol in the other cancer cell lines studied here." claim Alessia Ligresti, Aniello Schiano Moriello, Katarzyna Starowicz, Isabel Matias, Simona Pisanti, Luciano De Petrocellis, Chiara Laezza, Giuseppe Portella, Maurizio Bifulco, Vincenzo Di Marzo, "Anti-tumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma", Endocannabinoid Research Group, Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, CNR Pozzuoli, Italy, May 25 2006.

2005: "Health Canada's approval of Sativex was based on the results of a four-week clinical trial involving 66 patients with MS-related neuropathic pain that was carried out in Great Britain, in which half received Sativex and the other half received a placebo. ... Sativex isolates the cannabinoid components, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), representing only two of the more than 60 related chemicals that make up the marijuana plant. It is believed that THC helps patients with pain while CBD has a neurological effect, and that isolating these two cannabinoids will enable patients to eliminate many of the side-effects that are associated with the use of medical marijuana." reports David Hodges, "Pot-based drug shows promise for neuropathic pain", Medical Post vol 41 issue 19, May 17 2005.

2004: "Cannabis extracts may be well suited to treatment of inflammatory diesases due to their multiple mechanisms of action. THC seemingly alleviates pain, spasm and diarrhoea, while the CBD component presents the likelyhood of immunomodulatory benefits. One recently demonstrated CBD effect is its ability to inhibit TFN-a (tissue necrosis factor-alpha), a proven mechanism of other agents employed to treat inflammatory bowel disease." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis." by AM Mafait, R Gallily, PF Sumariwalla, AS Malik, E Andreakos, R Mechoulam, et al, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 2000;97(17), pgs 9561-9566.

2004: "Numerous studies in the 1970s indicated that THC slowed intestinal passage of a charcoal meal in rodents. Cannabidiol (CBD) had little effect of its own, but synergized the effects of THC." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "Interaction of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on intestinal motility in mice" by PF Anderson, DM Jackson, GB Chesher, Journal Pharm Pharmacology 1974:26(2), pgs 136-137.

 

 

Cannabinoids

Includes anandamide, cannabichromene, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, endocannabinoids, tetra-hydro-cannabinol
Also see Cannabidiol, Tetra-Hydro-Cannabinol

2006: "We investigated the anti-tumor activities of other plant cannabinoids, i.e. cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidiol-acid and THC-acid, and assessed whether there is any advantage in using Cannabis extracts (enriched in either cannabidiol or THC) over pure cannabinoids. Results obtained in a panel of tumor cell lines clearly indicate that, of the five natural compounds tested, cannabidiol is the most potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth (IC50 between 6.0 and 10.6 µM), with significantly lower potency in noncancer cells. The cannabidiol-rich extract was equipotent to cannabidiol, whereas cannabigerol and cannabichromene followed in the rank of potency. Both cannabidiol and the cannabidiol-rich extract inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors obtained by subcutaneous injection into athymic mice of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma or rat v-K-ras-transformed thyroid epithelial cells, and reduced lung metastases deriving from intra-paw injection of MDA-MB-231 cells." claim Alessia Ligresti, Aniello Schiano Moriello, Katarzyna Starowicz, Isabel Matias, Simona Pisanti, Luciano De Petrocellis, Chiara Laezza, Giuseppe Portella, Maurizio Bifulco, Vincenzo Di Marzo, "Anti-tumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma", Endocannabinoid Research Group, Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, CNR Pozzuoli, Italy, May 25 2006.

2005: "A recent study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests that smoking pot can make the brain grow. Though most drugs inhibit the growth of new brain cells, injections of a synthetic cannibinoid have had the opposite effect in mice in a study performed at the University of Saskatchewan. ... Many drugs – heroin, cocaine, and the more common alcohol and nicotine – inhibit the growth of these new cells. It was thought that marijuana did the same thing, but this new research suggests otherwise. ... The researchers found that rats treated with HU-210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] on a regular basis showed neurogenesis – the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus. A current hypothesis suggests depression may be triggered when the hippocampus grows insufficient numbers of new brain cells. If true, HU-210 could offer a treatment for such mood disorders by stimulating this growth." reports Juanita King from "science: Study shows marijuana increases brain cell growth", The Peak, Oct 31 2005. Study Text, PDF

2004: "The same family of chemicals that produces a buzz in marijuana smokers may be responsible for 'runner's high,' the euphoric feeling that some people get when they exercise, US researchers say. High levels of anandamide were found in young men who ran or cycled at a moderate rate for about an hour, according to a study made public this week by the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of California, Irvine. Anandamide is a cannabinoid, or lipid molecule, that is naturally produced in the body. It is known to produce sensations that are similar to those of THC, the psychoactive property in marijuana." reports Reuters from "Study links marijuana buzz to 'runner's high' ", Jan 11 2004

2000: "Endocannabinoids: new targets for drug development" by Di Marzo, T Bisogno, L De Petrocellis, Current Pharm Des, vol 6-13, pgs 1361-1380, Sept 2000

"The 'endogenous' cannabinoid anandamide was shown to lower blood pressure and heart rate through the CB1 receptor. The CB1 antagonist SR141716 was shown to block the blood-pressure-lowering effects of anandamide. The researchers guessed that the CB1 receptors were lowering blood pressure by vasodilation through the sympathetic nervous system." claims Los Angeles Cannabis Resource Center from "Cannabinoids in the Brain".

Cannabis.net
Cannabis, Cannabinoids and the Brain cannabis.net/refs/index.html

 

 

Cardiovascular

Includes artherosclerosis, blood, blood pressure, blood vessels, stroke
Also see Heart

2005: "Eating low doses of THC, the active ingredient in cannabis, helps prevent arteries clogging up, at least in mice. ... François Mach at University Hospital in Geneva, Switzerland, wondered if this effect might also help prevent the build-up of fatty deposits in arteries, or atherosclerosis, by reducing the inflammation associated with this process. Sure enough, when his team fed 1 milligram of THC per kilogram of bodyweight - a low dose that should not have any psychotropic effects - to mice susceptible to atherosclerosis, it greatly slowed the progress of the disease (Nature, vol 434, p 782). The results are striking, says Michael Roth of the University of California, Los Angeles, who wrote a commentary for Nature. He stresses that the findings do not prove that smoking cannabis will prevent atherosclerosis, pointing out that the mouse study suggests the effect is dose-dependent and too little or too much THC has no protective effect." – "Cannabis may help keep arteries clear", New Scintist, Apr 16 2005, pg 19.

2005: "Marijuana really does give you a headrush. In frequent cannabis users, blood flows faster through the arteries of the brain than in people who do not use the drug. ... Jean Cadet of the National Institute on Drug Abuse ... measured blood flow in the brains of 54 frequent marijuana smokers using a method called transcranial Doppler sonography. Even in the group he describes as 'light' users, who smoked 11 joints a week on average, there was a clear difference in blood flow compared with 18 controls. ... (Neurology, vol 64, p 488)." – "Marijuana really does cause a headrush", New Scientist, Feb 12 2005, pg 17.

2005: "Smoking marijuana can affect blood flow in the brain so much that it takes over a month to return to normal. And for heavy smokers, the effects could last much longer, a new study suggests. Regular marijuana use can harm memory and the ability to make decisions, according to Jean Cadet at the National Institute on Drug Abuse in Baltimore, Maryland, US. To find out why, he monitored the flow of blood through the brains of 54 marijuana smokers, among whom the heaviest user smoked 50 joints every day. People who smoked cannabis had higher blood flow through their brains than non-users. Yet there was also greater resistance to the blood flow, suggesting that cannabis changes the blood vessels in the brain in a way which hinders oxygen in reaching the tissue effectively. In an attempt to compensate, extra blood is sent to that part of the brain, increasing resistance but probably failing to get enough oxygen through the vessels, Cadet suggests." – "Marijuana makes blood rush to the head", New Scientist, Feb 7 2005.

2005: "The active ingredient in cannabis protects arteries against harmful changes that lead to strokes and heart attacks, new research suggests. THC, or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is known to affect the brain and make cannabis-users 'high'. The new research shows that it also has an influence on blood vessels. A study of mice revealed that the compound blocks the process of inflammation, which is largely responsible for the narrowing of arteries.  Inflammation combines with fatty deposits to produce obstructive 'plaques', a condition known as atherosclerosis. These can block arteries to the heart, causing angina and heart attacks, or to the brain, leading to strokes. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke in the Western world, accounting for up to half the deaths from both conditions. The scientists, led by François Mach, from Geneva University Hospital in Switzerland, studied a strain of specially bred mice that are susceptible to narrowing of the arteries. They were fed a high-cholesterol diet to make them develop atherosclerotic plaques. Adding THC to their diet caused the growth of the obstructions in their arteries to slow markedly after 11 months. When the mice were given a chemical that blocked the action of THC, their arteries continued to narrow at a fast rate." reports Nigel Hawkes, Times online, Apr 7 2005.

2005: "The active ingredient of cannabis may protect against heart disease and strokes ... If a similar effect can be demonstrated in people, it would bring further ammunition to the camp of those who think that marijuana (or rather its purified derivatives) should be treated seriously as a medicine. Sadly for recreational users, though, the dose of THC required was very specific. Too little or too much and the effect went away. Smoking spliffs is already known to be bad for the heart. The protective effect Dr Steffens has demonstrated is only limited compensation." claims Economist, Apr 7 2005.

2005: "Low doses of the main active ingredient in marijuana slowed the progression of hardening of the arteries in mice, suggesting a hint for developing a new therapy in people. ... The mouse work is presented in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature by Dr. Francois Mach of Geneva University Hospital in Geneva, Switzerland, and colleagues. ... Hardening of the arteries sets the stage for heart attacks. Inflammation plays a key role in the condition, characterized by a progressive buildup on the inside walls of blood vessels. So Mach and colleagues explored the anti-inflammatory effects of marijuana's main active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. They fed mice a high-cholesterol diet for 11 weeks. About halfway through that period, they started giving some of the mice very low, daily oral doses of THC – too low to produce any marijuana-like changes in behavior. At the end of the experiment, mice that had gotten the THC showed less blood vessel clogging than did mice that got no THC. Related work showed no additional benefit from higher THC doses, such as a person would get from smoking marijuana, Mach noted. Researchers found that the benefit came from THC's effect on immune-system cells. It reduced their secretion of an inflammation-promoting substance and their migration to the vessel wall, researchers found. It apparently did that by binding to proteins called CB2 receptors, which are found mostly on immune-system cells. THC also targets CB1 receptors, found mostly in the brain. So the work suggests scientists should try to develop a drug that works on CB2 receptors while ignoring the brain receptors, Mach said." reports Malcolm Ritter, Associated Press, Apr 6 2005.

2002: "The neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids may have potential clinical relevance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular ischemia and stroke." claims Gregory T Carter and Patrick Weydt from "Cannabis: Old medicine with new promise for neurological disorders"

1982: "[there is no evidence that smoking marijuana] exerts a permanently deleterious effect on the normal cardiovascular system." claims Institute of Medicine.

"The 'endogenous' cannabinoid anandamide was shown to lower blood pressure and heart rate through the CB1 receptor. The CB1 antagonist SR141716 was shown to block the blood-pressure-lowering effects of anandamide. The researchers guessed that the CB1 receptors were lowering blood pressure by vasodilation through the sympathetic nervous system." claims Los Angeles Cannabis Resource Center from "Cannabinoids in the Brain".

 

 

Cerebral Palsy

Also see Neurological Disorders

2000: "In August, Fayetteville police arrested Betty Wicker for marijuana possession ... she was given three years probation. Although she told Judge Storey the marijuana was used to fight debilitating cerebral palsy symptoms, he said she would need to find another effective method to manage the condition. Wicker, 42, shakes uncontrollably from head to foot, making simple conversation difficult. Wicker said she was diagnosed with cerebral palsy in 1993, which doctors believe could have been caused by a head injury she suffered when falling from a horse as a teenager. When a Walnut Ridge doctor correctly identified her condition, he said she had three options. Undergo brain surgery, which could kill her, take 21 pills each day which could also kill her, or smoke marijuana. In fact, Wicker said, the doctor specifically instructed her to not stop smoking or she would wind up in a wheelchair within six months. Yet due to the court ordered probation, Wicker is forced to take urinalysis tests each week and to avoid legal trouble, she has discontinued smoking marijuana ... 'My shaking gets really bad a lot of the time. I'm not taking morphine shots, but I am back on morphine pills. I would much rather smoke a little medical marijuana, but for now if I don't take the morphine I would be unable to do anything.' " – "Betty Jean Wicker"

 

 

Cerebrovascular Ischemia

Also see Neurological Disorders

2002: "The neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids may have potential clinical relevance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular ischemia and stroke." claims Gregory T Carter and Patrick Weydt from "Cannabis: Old medicine with new promise for neurological disorders"

 

 

Chemotherapy

See Acqired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Appetite, Cancer Medicine, Compazine, Nausea, Torecan, Zofran

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids in the treatment of ... cancer chemotherapy side-effects ... THC itself is approved in the U.S. by the FDA, and it is used in many other countries for the prevention of vomiting during cancer chemotherapy, and for appetite enhancement. We, and many others, have found that not only THC does that, but also the endocannabinoids. This is one of the main reasons for high endocannabinoid levels during hunger and so on. Now, THC can be used, and is being used, for these two things." claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

1997: "A double-blind study confirmed that this synthetic drug [THC] was preferred by chemotherapy patients by an almost two-to-one margin." claims "Marijuana: Myths and Truth", Office of National Drug Control Policy. (No explanation of what drug(s) THC was preferred to.)

1996: 80% of AIDS patients who had used cannabis preferred it to prescription drugs including synthetic THC, claims B Wesner, "The Medical Marijuana Issue Among PWAs: Reports of Therapeutic Use and Attitudes Toward Legal Reform", Drug Research Unit, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

1988: "Marijuana cigarettes in many cses are superior to synthetic THC capsules in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marijuana cigarettes have an important, clear advantage over synthetic THC capsules in that natural marijuana is inhaled and generally takes effect more quickly than the synthetic capsule" claims Francis L Young, Chief Administrative Law Judge, US Drug Enforcement Administration, 1988.

1986: "I started feeling the changes pretty much right away. Smoking marijuana also felt ten times better than taking Marinol pill. It helped reduce my nausea and I could hold down food better." claims Jim Kerns, cancer and chemotherapy patient.

1983: "[Inhaled] Marijuana has been shown to be effective for many cancer chemotherapy patients, safe dosage levels have been established and a dosage regimen which minimizes undesirable side effects has been devised and tested." claims California Research Advisory Panel, Annual Report of the California Research Advisory Panel, vol 14, submitted to the Governor and Legislature.

1981: "74 percent of the cancer patients treated in the program have reported that [inhaled] marijuana is more effective in relieveing their nausea and vomiting than any other drug they have tried." claims California Research Advisory Panel, Annual Report of the California Research Advisory Panel, vol 12, submitted to the Governor and Legislature.

"When our daughter was undergoing chemotherapy for lymph cancer, she was sick and vomiting constantly as a result of her treatments. No legal drugs, including Marinol, helped her. We finally turned to marijuana. With it, she kept her food down, was comfortable and even gained weight. Those who say Marinol and other drugs are satisfactory substitutes for marijuana may be right in some cases but certainly not in all cases. If doctors can prescribe morphine and other addictive medicines, it makes no sense to deny marijuana to sick and dying patients when it can be provided on a carefully controlled, prescription basis." claims Franklyn "Lyn" Nofziger from his op-ed published in Washington Post, requoted in "Medical Marijuana: Reagan Aide Lyn Nofziger Dead at 81 – Supported Patients' Rights".

 

 

CNS

2003: "The major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC), and endogenous cannabinoid ligands, such as anandamide, signal through G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors localised to regions of the brain associated with important neurological processes. Signalling is mostly inhibitory and suggests a role for cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in CNS disease where inhibition of neurotransmitter release would be beneficial. ... This review highlights recent advances in understanding of the endocannabinoid system and indicates CNS disorders that may benefit from the therapeutic effects of cannabinoid treatment." claims JL Croxford from "Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease", CNS Drugs 2003 #17(3), pgs 179-202.

 

 

Colitis

"These [anti-inflammatory] drugs [Asacol, Azulfidine, Pentasa, Rowasa] provided minimal to no relief from symptoms while causing kidney pain, burning urination, significant loss of hair, further loss of appetite, and irritation to the rectum.... Using marijuana provided great relief from the pain, cramping, and nausea. It also resulted in fewer bowel movements each day, and increased my appetite helping me keep a more stable body weight. I also noticed it improved my mood so I wasn't feeling depressed all the time. In conjunction with marijuana I take hemp seed oil which is also a powerful anti-inflammatory and has many other health benefits. Using nothing but marijuana and hemp seed oil (no pharmaceutical drugs) I was able to go from a very severe condition to complete remission and to maintain it with out suffering any harsh side effects. If I stop using one or the other for more than a few days I begin to develop symptoms ... I began to research on the Internet and soon found many testimonials of other colitis sufferers who also found relief in the use of marijuana. I also found many articles containing scientific evidence that marijuana possesses anti-inflammatory properties." claims anonymous Arkansas man from "Patient Story - Ulcerative Colitis".

 

 

Comparative Pharmacology

Also see Comparative efficacy, Comparative safety, Acetaminophen, Alcohol, Alprazolam, Amitryptiline, Antivert, Aspirin, Carbamazepine, Carbitrol, Cocaine, Compazine, Dibenzoxepin, Dilantin, Donepezil , Dronabinol, Elavil, Flunitrazepam, Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate, Heroin, Hormones, Lithium, Marinol, Meclizine, Medicine, Meperidine, Mesalamine, Mescaline, Methamphetamine, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Ondansetron, Opiates, Paroxetine, Paxil, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Prochlorperazine, Promethazine, Psilocybin, Steroids, Tacrine, Tegretol, Tetra-Hydro-Cannabinol, Thiethylperazine, Tobacco, Torecan, Tysabri, Xanax, Zofran

 

"Drugs - a comparison of effects"
sky.org/data/laaketiede/drugs.html

 

Comparative Pharmacological efficacy

2002: "Before she [Nofziger's daughter] died she underwent heavy chemotherapy that caused nausea, diarrhea and loss of appetite. None of the legal medications including the marijuana substitute Marinol helped to alleviate the symptoms. In desperation, we turned to marijuana to see if that would help. Fortunately, people know a lot more about where to find marijuana than people of my generation. And the marijuana did help reduce the side effects of the chemotherapy to the point where she regained her appetite and actually began putting on weight. Obviously, it did not save her life nor did we think it would. However, it made a portion of the last weeks of her life considerably more bearable both to her and to her family. Since then I have learned that marijuana can also help persons with glaucoma, the wasting symptoms of AIDS, multiple sclerosis and other afflictions." – from "Former Reagan Aide Among Medical Marijuana Supporters" by Jim Burns, July 25 2002

1997: "A double-blind study confirmed that this synthetic drug [THC] was preferred by chemotherapy patients by an almost two-to-one margin." claims "Marijuana: Myths and Truth", US Office of National Drug Control Policy. (No explanation of what drug(s) THC was preferred to.)

1996: 80% of AIDS patients who had used cannabis preferred it to prescription drugs including synthetic THC, claims B Wesner, "The Medical Marijuana Issue Among PWAs: Reports of Therapeutic Use and Attitudes Toward Legal Reform", Drug Research Unit, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

1981: "74 percent of the cancer patients treated in the program have reported that [inhaled] marijuana is more effective in relieveing their nausea and vomiting than any other drug they have tried." claims California Research Advisory Panel, Annual Report of the California Research Advisory Panel, vol 12, submitted to the Governor and Legislature.

"When our daughter was undergoing chemotherapy for lymph cancer, she was sick and vomiting constantly as a result of her treatments. No legal drugs, including Marinol, helped her. We finally turned to marijuana. With it, she kept her food down, was comfortable and even gained weight. Those who say Marinol and other drugs are satisfactory substitutes for marijuana may be right in some cases but certainly not in all cases." claims Franklyn "Lyn" Nofziger from his op-ed published in Washington Post, requoted in "Medical Marijuana: Reagan Aide Lyn Nofziger Dead at 81 – Supported Patients' Rights".

"I have Multiple Sclerosis and have been able to receive little to no relief from the FDA approved medicines my doctors recommended. The doctors had me on Ritalin to give me energy and Prozac to keep my moods level. I took Vicodin [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] and Soma to help with pain. I had to learn to give myself shots, so that I could take my Copaxone drug ... I am not taking any of those drugs now, I haven't for four years now I have been smoking medical marijuana. Since I have been medicating my body with marijuana I have never felt better, my disease has mostly gone into remission ... I am able to work part time and that was not something that was thought possible four short years ago. Marijuana has changed my life with the best possible thing - Hope." claims Meagan Boyd from "Patient Testimonials".

 

Comparative Pharmacological safety

also see Cancer safety, Medicinal safety, Smoking safety, US Annual Drug Caused Deaths

2006: "... a normally healthy 70-kilogram (154-pound) adult can achieve a relaxed affability from approximately 33 grams of ethyl alcohol. This effective dose can come from two 12-ounce beers, two 5-ounce glasses of wine or two 1.5-ounce shots of 80-proof vodka. The median lethal dose for such an adult is approximately 330 grams, the quantity contained in about 20 shots of vodka. A person who consumes that much (10 times the median effective dose), taken within a few minutes on an empty stomach, risks a lethal reaction. ... The most toxic recreational drugs, such as GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and heroin, have a lethal dose less than 10 times their typical effective dose. The largest cluster of substances has a lethal dose that is 10 to 20 times the effective dose: These include cocaine, MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine, often called "ecstasy") and alcohol. A less toxic group of substances, requiring 20 to 80 times the effective dose to cause death, include Rohypnol (flunitrazepam or "roofies") and mescaline (peyote cactus). The least physiologically toxic substances, those requiring 100 to 1,000 times the effective dose to cause death, include psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana, when ingested. I've found no published cases in the English language that document deaths from smoked marijuana, so the actual lethal dose is a mystery. My surmise is that smoking marijuana is more risky than eating it but still safer than getting drunk. ... statistics show that every year about 300 people die in the United States from an alcohol overdose, and for at least twice that number of overdose deaths, alcohol is considered a contributing cause." claims Robert S Gable, "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs", American Scientist, May-June 2006. Also see chart "Ranking psychoactive substances – ratio of fatal dose to effective dose"

2005: "A recent study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests that smoking pot can make the brain grow. Though most drugs inhibit the growth of new brain cells, injections of a synthetic cannibinoid have had the opposite effect in mice in a study performed at the University of Saskatchewan. ... Many drugs – heroin, cocaine, and the more common alcohol and nicotine – inhibit the growth of these new cells. It was thought that marijuana did the same thing, but this new research suggests otherwise. ... The researchers found that rats treated with HU-210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] on a regular basis showed neurogenesis – the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus. " reports Juanita King from "science: Study shows marijuana increases brain cell growth", The Peak, Oct 31 2005. Study Text, PDF

2004: "Marijuana is a dangerous drug, a surprisingly dangerous drug. More teenagers are treated for marijuana abuse than for abuse of any other substance, including alcohol, and any law making marijuana more accessible will exacerbate the problem." claims Tom Riley, spokesperson for US Office of National Drug Control Policy, from "Medical Marijuana Use Gains Support" by Bill Broadway, Detroit News, July 4 2004.

2000: "... some drugs have a Safety Ratio or Therapeutic Index of just 10:1 or 20:1 or so (while some chemo therapy drugs only have a 'safety' ratio of about 1.5:1!) Alcohol's Safety Ratio is as low as ~ 4:1. So, if you drink about 4 times as much as you 'need' you may well kill yourself. On the other hand, THC, which is sometimes considered the 'most toxic' component in Cannabis (by some people) has a Safety Ratio or Therapeutic Index that is much higher than 40,000:1. [The T.I. or S.I. tells you how many normal doses of something you can take before you reach the LD-50% level for this material.] [LD-50% = Lethal Dose for 50% of the test subjects for a given substance.]" claims Pat from "Cannabis vs Dilantin. Safety Ratio. WoDs, etc.", Marihemp, July 2 2000.

1997: "Fact: No credible medical research has shown smoked marijuana to be safe, effective, or therapeutically superior to other substances that have fewer side effects." claims "Marijuana: Myths and Truth", US Office of National Drug Control Policy. (see Patients Out of Time's Rebuttal)

1997: "... cannabis poses a much less serious public health problem than is currently posed by alcohol and tobacco in Western societies." claims "Cannabis: a health perspective and research agenda", Programme on Substance Abuse, Divison of Mental Health and Prevention of Substance Abuse, World Health Organization, 1997.

1995: "... there are good reasons for saying that [cannabis] would be unlikely to seriously rival the public health risks of alcohol and tobacco even if as many people used cannabis as now drink alcohol or smoke tobacco" claims Wayne Hall, Robin Room, Susan Bondy from "A Comparative Appraisal of the Health and Psychological Consequences of Alcohol, Cannabis, Nicotine and Opiate Use", Project on Health Implications of Cannabis Use, World Health Organization, Aug 28 1995.

1995: "The smoking of cannabis, even long term, is not harmful to health." claims the British scientific journal Lancet.

1988: "In strict medical terms marijuana is far safer than many foods we commonly consume. For example, eating 10 raw potatoes can result in a toxic response. By comparison, it is physically impossible to eat enough marijuana to induce death. Marijuana in its natural form is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man. By any measure of rational analysis marijuana can be safely used within the supervised routine of medical care." claims Drug Enforcement Administration's Chief Administrative Law Judge Francis L Young, "In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition," [Docket #86-22], Sept 6, 1988, pg 57.

1978: "Federally funded studies of long-tern users of high-potency marijuana in three foreign countries showed no difference between the health, ability to work, and brain function of users and non-users, a number of researchers said ... Studies showed little if any harm from the marijuana smoking. [Dr Max] Fink [of the department of psychiatry of the State University of New York at Stony Brook] called the poisonous effects of marijuana, as shown in the studies, 'trivial at best.' ... A team of Greek doctors, giving physicals to 60 marijuana users compared to 64 nonusers, also found no difference in the health of the two groups." reports Stuart Auerbach in "Studies See No Health Effect of Pot Smoking, Researchers Say", Washington Post, Jan 28 1978.

1972: "A careful search of the literature and testimony of the nation's health officials has not revealed a single human fatality in the United States proven to have resulted solely from ingestion of marihuana. Experiments with the drug in monkeys demonstrated that the dose required for overdose death was enormous and for all practical purposes unachievable by humans smoking marihuana. This is in marked contrast to other substances in common use, most notably alcohol and barbiturate sleeping pills." claims Raymond P Shafer, et al, Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding, National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse.

 

US Annual Drug Caused Deaths

D e a t h s

Percentage

Lethal/Effective
Dose4

Drug

(Median)

(High)

(Low)

(Median)

(High)

(Low)

All

586,437

832,600

401,670

100%

All Legal

580,000

815,600 396,000

99%

Tobacco

400,000

560,000

310,000

68%

Alcohol

100,000

150,000

46,000

17%

10

10

Other Legal

80,000

145,000

14,000

14%

All Prescription

137,500

14,000

All OTC

All Anti-Inflammatory

7,600

7,600

7,600

1.3%

Aspirin

180

1,000

52

.03%

Acetaminophen

458

458

296

.08%

Ibuprofen
Caffeine

1,000

10,000

76

.2%

All Opiates

2,800

2,800

2,800

.5%

All Legal Opiates1
Codeine

20

20

Methadone3

3,849

3,849

3,849

.7%

All Illegal

6,437

17,000

5,670

1.1%

All Illegal Opiates1
Heroin2,3

1,900

2,091

1,881

.3%

5

5

Opium

1

1

1

0%

Cocaine3

4,500

5,461

3,500

.8%

15

15

Methamphetamine

280

280

280

.05%

MDMA (Ecstasy)

8

8

8

.002%

16

16

Mescaline

24

24

LSD

1000

1000

Psilocybin

1000

1000

Cannabis

0

296

0

0%

>1000

>1000

1Legal opiates include codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, meperidine, methadone, morphine, oxycodone. Illegal opiates include heroin, opium.

2Most heroin deaths are caused by use with other drugs claims Darke and Zador in "Fatal Heroin 'Overdose': A Review."

3Poisoning deaths in which methadone, heroin and cocaine are "mentioned" but not necessarily the cause or sole cause of death

4Lethal/effective dose data from: "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs" by Robert S Gable, other sources

Zero Cannabis Deaths sources:
California Bear
Common Sense for Drug Policy
Drug War Facts
Hemperor
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws
ReconsiDer: Forum on Drug Policy

 

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Tylox, Vicodin)

Also see Pain

2005: "I haven't had to take prescription drugs in four years,' said [Charles] Dunn, who said his degenerative back and neck condition for years required him to take powerful and expensive narcotics such as morphine and Vicodin [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] to reduce his pain." reports Jeff McDonald, "13 Medical Pot Dispensaries in County Raided", San Diego Union-Tribune, Dec 13 2005.

2004: "17,000 people died from Tylenol toxicity the last year they have data. So, I mean the reality is, if you look at it rationally, Tylenol is a very dangerous drug; it’s un-regulated, over-the-counter." claims Dr Joel Hochman, Founder & Exec Dir, National Foundation for the Treament of Pain, Cultural Baggage radio show, Aug 10 2004.

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... Presently he is taking Tylox [oxycodone and acetaminophen] 1 or 2 per day for severe headaches, Marinol to provide some daily control and Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] and Lithium to control the depression associated with his constant turmoil. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug. It should be noted that the Marinol only gives him partial and inadequate pain relief." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

"I have Multiple Sclerosis and have been able to receive little to no relief from the FDA approved medicines my doctors recommended. ... I took Vicodin [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] and Soma to help with pain. ... I am not taking any of those drugs now, I haven't for four years now I have been smoking medical marijuana. Since I have been medicating my body with marijuana I have never felt better, my disease has mostly gone into remission ... I am able to work part time and that was not something that was thought possible four short years ago. Marijuana has changed my life with the best possible thing - Hope." claims Meagan Boyd from "Patient Testimonials".

"The nerves in my neck were smashed in a gunshot accident ... I can move my arm, but I can't move my fingers. There is a kind of numbness from my left shoulder down to my pinkie. But there is also a burning feeling, like needles. I can't stand for anything to touch my arm – if I accidently hit it there is extreme pain. It throbs 24 hrs a day. I've been on numerous strong medicines, including Tawan NX, Vicodin 10 mg [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] , and methadone 10 mg 4 to 5 pills per day. Some days I can take less, depending on how much I use marijuana. I don't smoke to get stoned, I smoke it for relief from thinking about my arm all the time and to take away the pain. When I smoke marijuana, I can get things done around the house, it gets me energetic, gives me an appetite. I don't have an appetite when I don't have marijuana – I have to force myself to eat. The narcotics give you a state of mind where you don't eat – I had to get off Vicodin – I was taking too much – it was hurting my kidneys. There's some kind of aspirin in it, 600 mg per tablet, 5-6 tablets per day – we caught it just in time before it ruined my kidneys. So they put me back on methadone – I didn't want to get back on that – it makes me nauseated, not eat, sometimes makes me depressed. When I smoke, I don't have to take very much methadone and I have a better outlook on life." claims anonymous patient from "Nerve Damage".

"I have hypoglycemia, a form of diabetes. ... The second condition I treat with marijuana is TMJ disorder, referring to the temporo-mandibular joint of the jaw. Over the years, this condition has worn my cartilage away. The severity of pain is hard to describe, but if the pain was ranked in levels up to 5, I would say that level 3 I am nauseated from the pain. At level 4 I can barely move my jaws enough to talk and eating is difficult. The real challenge is to not vomit from the pain, because vomiting flexes my jaw. At level 5, I can't avoid vomiting and I can't eat, which causes my blood sugar to drop dangerously low. ... For the pain, I've tried Vicodin [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] , but marijuana is as effective as two Vicodin and the relief is immediate with easily controlled dosage. For the nausea and vomiting, marijuana is amazing. The nausea stops in two minutes, period. Even if I'm already vomiting, I can still get it in my system with a few puffs. ... I've been on Vicodin since December 2001, which is a very addicting drug and not recommended for long term use. Not only am I having symptoms of physical addiction, but it's making my condition worse by staying in my system too long and putting me into deep sleep which causes my blood sugar to drop. So the episodes that normally last 4-5 days are now lasting two weeks or more. When it finally eases up, I go through withdrawal. ... I believe God put marijuana on Earth as medicine to help people. I don't believe opiate addiction is part of God's plan for me. I could leave my home and family for a state where medical marijuana laws would protect me, but I am a grandmother and a granddaughter and don't want to leave my loved ones. ... Our doctor would recommend marijuana if he didn't face the threat of losing his license." claims anonymous female patient from "Appetite and Pain".

 

Alcohol

Also see Alcoholism

2008: "... the relative risk of ... contracting head and neck cancer in marijuana users was the same (1.0) as in those who had never smoked cannabis. These results differ from the relative risk of contracting cancer from ... heavy consumption of alcohol (5.7), compared with those who abstained from those activities." – "Small study shows marijuana does not increase risk of head, neck cancer", Mar 5 2008

2006: "... a normally healthy 70-kilogram (154-pound) adult can achieve a relaxed affability from approximately 33 grams of ethyl alcohol. This effective dose can come from two 12-ounce beers, two 5-ounce glasses of wine or two 1.5-ounce shots of 80-proof vodka. The median lethal dose for such an adult is approximately 330 grams, the quantity contained in about 20 shots of vodka. A person who consumes that much (10 times the median effective dose), taken within a few minutes on an empty stomach, risks a lethal reaction. ... The largest cluster of substances has a lethal dose that is 10 to 20 times the effective dose: These include cocaine, MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine, often called "ecstasy") and alcohol. ... My surmise is that smoking marijuana is more risky than eating it but still safer than getting drunk. ... statistics show that every year about 300 people die in the United States from an alcohol overdose, and for at least twice that number of overdose deaths, alcohol is considered a contributing cause." claims Robert S Gable, "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs", American Scientist, May-June 2006.

2005: "A recent study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests that smoking pot can make the brain grow. Though most drugs inhibit the growth of new brain cells, injections of a synthetic cannibinoid have had the opposite effect in mice in a study performed at the University of Saskatchewan. ... Many drugs – heroin, cocaine, and the more common alcohol and nicotine – inhibit the growth of these new cells. It was thought that marijuana did the same thing, but this new research suggests otherwise. ... The researchers found that rats treated with HU-210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] on a regular basis showed neurogenesis – the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus. " reports Juanita King from "science: Study shows marijuana increases brain cell growth", The Peak, Oct 31 2005. Study Text, PDF

2003: "Smoking marijuana ... does not cause permanent brain damage, researchers from the University of California at San Diego said Friday in a study. ... Other illegal drugs, or even alcohol, can cause brain damage. ..." reports Walter Cronkite, "Pot Doesn't Harm Brain, Study Shows", June 30 2003

2003: "Women who used marijuana also had a lower risk of total mortality as compared to those who consumed alcohol regularly.” from "Marijuana Smoking Doesn't Lead to Higher Death Rate", O'Shaughnessy's Jouurnal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

1996: "Compared to alcohol, which makes people take more risks on the road, marijuana made drivers slow down and drive more carefully.... Cannabis is good for driving skills, as people tend to overcompensate for a perceived impairment." claims Professor Olaf Drummer, a forensic scientist the Royal College of Surgeons in Melbourne, Australia.

1989: "No evidence for a Role of Alcohol or Other Psychoactive Drugs in Accelerating Immunodeficiency in HIV-1 Positive Individuals", Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Journal of the American Medical Association, June 16, 1989.

1968: "The evidence of a link with violent crime is far stronger with alcohol than with the smoking of cannabis." claims British Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence in The Wooten Report: Committee on Drug Dependence, Cannabis

 

Alprazolam (Xanax)

1988: "My family obtained some marijuana for me and I began to use it along with Xanax ... the marijuana put me at cruising speed, regulated and even. Eventually I was able to reduce my use of Xanax ..." claims Karen Ross, from Marihuana, The Forbidden Medicine, by Lester A Grinspoon & James B Bakalar, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pg 102.

 

Amitryptiline (Elavil)

1988: "My family obtained some marijuana for me and I began to use it along with Xanax and Elavil ... the marijuana put me at cruising speed, regulated and even. Eventually I was able to reduce my use of Xanax and stop using Elavil entirely." claims Karen Ross, from Marihuana, The Forbidden Medicine, by Lester A Grinspoon & James B Bakalar, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pg 102.

 

Aspirin

Also see Pain

 

Carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol)

Also see Epilepsy

2004: "... she was able to control her seizures with ... Tegretol. About 5 years ago she started having auras and seizures that no prescription medication was able to control. ... The reason I'm writing is because we know that cannabis (marijuana) prevents her seizures. Not only do I know this but there are thousands of other patients out there that know it." claims "phatboy" – "5000 year old drug prevents seizures.", Epilepsy Foundation eCommunities Forums, Jan 8 2004.

 

Cocaine

2006: "The largest cluster of substances has a lethal dose that is 10 to 20 times the effective dose: These include cocaine, MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine, often called "ecstasy") and alcohol. ... The least physiologically toxic substances, those requiring 100 to 1,000 times the effective dose to cause death, include psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana, when ingested." claims Robert S Gable, "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs", American Scientist, May-June 2006.

2005: "A recent study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests that smoking pot can make the brain grow. Though most drugs inhibit the growth of new brain cells, injections of a synthetic cannibinoid have had the opposite effect in mice in a study performed at the University of Saskatchewan. ... Many drugs – heroin, cocaine, and the more common alcohol and nicotine – inhibit the growth of these new cells. It was thought that marijuana did the same thing, but this new research suggests otherwise. ... The researchers found that rats treated with HU-210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] on a regular basis showed neurogenesis – the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus. " reports Juanita King from "science: Study shows marijuana increases brain cell growth", The Peak, Oct 31 2005. Study Text, PDF

Also see Pain

 

Dibenzoxepin (Adapin, Doxepin, Novoxapin, Sinequan, Triadapin)

Also see Depression, Pain

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... Presently he is taking Tylox [oxycodone and acetaminophen] 1 or 2 per day for severe headaches, Marinol to provide some daily control and Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] and Lithium to control the depression associated with his constant turmoil. ... The only drug that seems to give William any true relief from pain is that from smoking marijuana. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug. It should be noted that the Marinol only gives him partial and inadequate pain relief." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

"... a chronic fatigue/fibromyalgia support group recommended marijuana ... for [my] post polio syndrome. I was amazed. Just a few puffs took away the pain. I was able to move around comfortably to walk, clean my house, and do all the things I needed to do. While living in California, and then for awhile in Hawaii, I had legal access to marijuana. This was during the time after these states had made marijuana available for medical use. ... I returned to Arkansas ... Since my return, I have not been able to obtain marijuana. My doctor has prescribed a variety of medications but these seem to have little effect on my symptoms. I still feel stiff and my body aches. The worst part is that these drugs make me very groggy. I'm afraid to drive and I don't feel very sociable. ... I don't know how much these powerful pain medications may be contributing to my depression, but now I'm also having to take strong mood altering drugs to control the depression. I take Darvocet for pain, Flexeril for muscle spasms, Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] for pain and as a sedative, Celexa for depression, and Klonopin as an antidepressant. ... I am seriously considering moving to one of the states where marijuana is available ..." claims Jean Cooper from "Patient Story - Jean - Childhood Polio".

 

Donepezil (Aricept)

2006: "It is noteworthy that THC is a considerably more effective inhibitor of AChE-induced [amyloid-beta-peptide] deposition than the approved drugs for Alzheimer's disease treatment, donepezil and tacrine, which reduced [amyloid-beta-peptide] aggregation by only 22% and 7%, respectively, at twice the concentration used in our studies. Therefore, AChE inhibitors such as THC and its analogues may provide an improved therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease, augmenting acetylcholine levels by preventing neurotransmitter degradation and reducing [amyloid-beta-peptide] aggregation, thereby simultaneously treating both the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer's disease." reports Lisa M Eubanks, Claude J Rogers, Albert E Beuscher IV, George F Koob, Arthur J Olson, Tobin J Dickerson, Kim D Janda from "A Molecular Link between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology", Molecular Pharmaceutics, Aug 9 2006

 

Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)

2006: "A less toxic group of substances, requiring 20 to 80 times the effective dose to cause death, include Rohypnol (flunitrazepam or "roofies") and mescaline (peyote cactus). The least physiologically toxic substances, those requiring 100 to 1,000 times the effective dose to cause death, include psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana, when ingested. I've found no published cases in the English language that document deaths from smoked marijuana, so the actual lethal dose is a mystery." claims Robert S Gable, "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs", American Scientist, May-June 2006

 

Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)

2006: "The most toxic recreational drugs, such as GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and heroin, have a lethal dose less than 10 times their typical effective dose. ... The least physiologically toxic substances, those requiring 100 to 1,000 times the effective dose to cause death, include psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana, when ingested. I've found no published cases in the English language that document deaths from smoked marijuana, so the actual lethal dose is a mystery." claims Robert S Gable, "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs", American Scientist, May-June 2006.

 

Lithium

Also see Depression

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... Presently he is taking Tylox [oxycodone and acetaminophen] 1 or 2 per day for severe headaches, Marinol to provide some daily control and Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] and Lithium to control the depression associated with his constant turmoil. ... The only drug that seems to give William any true relief from pain is that from smoking marijuana. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

 

Meclizine HCl (Antivert)

Also see Nausea, Ondansetron, Prochlorperazine, Thiethylperazine

"I was diagnosed with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis in 1986 ... My neurologist prescribed the drugs Compazine and Antivert. They had little affect on the nausea and no affect on the appetite, even after the dosage was doubled. After a couple of weeks of feeling sick and not eating, I had lost 15 pounds and no medication was helping. ... I decided to try smoking Cannabis/Marijuana. At first I felt worse, but after the effects of the smoke were gone I began to relax and get an appetite. I could finally eat again. Since that time, I have used cannabis to maintain a healthy body weight and a decent standard of living. For years I left my prescription drugs setting on the counter, as Cannabis was more effective." cliams John E Precup from "Patient Testimonials"

 

Meperidine (Demerol, Mepergan)

Also see Pain

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... There are occasions when he is seen in the office or the emergency room and given shots of Demerol [meperidine] and Phenergren [promethazine]. Even these shots do not give him full relief of his headaches, but do, when things are severe, give him a few hours of peace. The only drug that seems to give William any true felief from pain is that from smoking marijuana. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug. It should be noted that the Marinol only gives him partial and inadequate pain relief." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

 

Mesalamine (Asacol, Pentasa, Rowasa)

Also see Colitis, Crohn's

2005: "Cannabis-using Crohn's patients ... are also able to reduce the amount of immunosuppressive medications that have been a mainstay of conventional treatment. ... Asacol and Pentasa brands of  Mesalamine, an anti-inflammatory medication with immuno-modulating properties is also reduced in many cases. ... Mesalamine frequently was reported to cause rash, itching, and photosensitivity." reports Jeff Hergenrather, "Cannabis Alleviates Symptoms of Chrohn's [sic] Disease", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Autumn 2005.

2005: "I've managed a Crohn's affliction very well for 20 years, the last 12 of them prescription free except for one month when upon getting a colonoscopy and being willing to try something else, I agreed to try Pentasa. I pooped my brains out almost immediately and for the next 5 days in spite of taking the drug for only two, on the maximum dose the doctor felt I needed. I had to work up to that dose slowly after two weeks off of it, and it seemed to work ..." claims James Moore, Crohn's patient.

"These [anti-inflammatory] drugs [Asacol, Azulfidine, Pentasa, Rowasa] provided minimal to no relief from symptoms while causing kidney pain, burning urination, significant loss of hair, further loss of appetite, and irritation to the rectum.... Using marijuana provided great relief from the pain, cramping, and nausea. It also resulted in fewer bowel movements each day, and increased my appetite helping me keep a more stable body weight. I also noticed it improved my mood so I wasn't feeling depressed all the time." claims anonymous Arkansas man from "Patient Story - Ulcerative Colitis".

 

Mescaline (Peyote)

2006: "A less toxic group of substances, requiring 20 to 80 times the effective dose to cause death, include Rohypnol (flunitrazepam or "roofies") and mescaline (peyote cactus). The least physiologically toxic substances, those requiring 100 to 1,000 times the effective dose to cause death, include psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana, when ingested. I've found no published cases in the English language that document deaths from smoked marijuana, so the actual lethal dose is a mystery." claims Robert S Gable, "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs", American Scientist, May-June 2006.

 

Methamphetamine

 

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy, MDMA)

2006: "The largest cluster of substances has a lethal dose that is 10 to 20 times the effective dose: These include cocaine, MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine, often called "ecstasy") and alcohol. ... The least physiologically toxic substances, those requiring 100 to 1,000 times the effective dose to cause death, include psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana, when ingested. I've found no published cases in the English language that document deaths from smoked marijuana, so the actual lethal dose is a mystery." claims Robert S Gable, "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs", American Scientist, May-June 2006.

 

Ondansetron HCl (Zofran)

Also see Meclizine, Nausea, Prochlorperazine, Thiethylperazine

1999: "In 1992 I was found to have testicular cancer. My chemotherapy put me in the hospital for five days at a time, once a month, for four months. But midway through my treatment I could tell that Zofran, then a hot new drug prescribed to combat nausea, was losing its effect. For the remainder of my chemotherapy I turned to marijuana to keep my head out of the toilet. None of the doctors or nurses at the hospitals I went to for treatment (New York University Medical Center) or consultation (Memorial Sloan-Kettering) discouraged me from using marijuana should the need arise. They said they had patients who had benefited from it when other drugs had failed." claims Richard Brookhiser, senior editor of National Review, from a letter to New York Times, May 22, 1999.

 

Opiates (Oxycontin, Vicodin)

includes codeine, fentanyl, heroin, hydrocodone, meperidine, methadone, morphine, opium, oxycodone
also see Pain

2006: "... National Survey on Drug Use and Health, conducted in 2004, counted about 97 million Americans who have tried marijuana, compared to 3 million who have tried heroin (166,000 had used it in the previous month). That's not much of a rush through the gateway. And a number of studies have demonstrated that your chances of becoming an addict are higher if addiction runs in your family, or if heroin is readily available in your community, or if you're a risk-taker. These factors can account for the total number of heroin addicts, which could make the gateway theory superfluous. On close inspection, [Mount Sinai School of Medicine Prof Yasmin] Hurd's research, published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology, doesn't show otherwise. For the most part, it's a blow to the gateway theory. To be sure, Hurd found that rats who got high on pot as adolescents used more heroin once they were addicted. But she found no evidence that they were more likely to become addicted than the rats in the control group who'd never been exposed to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, marijuana's main ingredient. ... The control rats paced their cages and repeatedly pressed the active bars even when the light indicating availability wasn't on. The pot rats, on the other hand, figured out that the heroin was available only at certain times, and that pacing and tapping the bar incessantly wasn't worth the trouble. When heroin was available, the marijuana rats took more of it. But when it wasn't, they chilled in the corner." reports Ryan Grim, "Gateway to Nowhere? The evidence that pot doesn't lead to heroin.", Slate, July 20 2006.

2006: "The most toxic recreational drugs, such as GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and heroin, have a lethal dose less than 10 times their typical effective dose. ... The least physiologically toxic substances, those requiring 100 to 1,000 times the effective dose to cause death, include psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana, when ingested. I've found no published cases in the English language that document deaths from smoked marijuana, so the actual lethal dose is a mystery." claims Robert S Gable, "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs", American Scientist, May-June 2006.

2005: "I haven't had to take prescription drugs in four years,' said [Charles] Dunn, who said his degenerative back and neck condition for years required him to take powerful and expensive narcotics such as morphine and Vicodin [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] to reduce his pain." reports Jeff McDonald, "13 Medical Pot Dispensaries in County Raided", San Diego Union-Tribune, Dec 13 2005.

2005: "A recent study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests that smoking pot can make the brain grow. Though most drugs inhibit the growth of new brain cells, injections of a synthetic cannibinoid have had the opposite effect in mice in a study performed at the University of Saskatchewan. ... Many drugs – heroin, cocaine, and the more common alcohol and nicotine – inhibit the growth of these new cells. It was thought that marijuana did the same thing, but this new research suggests otherwise. ... The researchers found that rats treated with HU-210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] on a regular basis showed neurogenesis – the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus. " reports Juanita King from "science: Study shows marijuana increases brain cell growth", The Peak, Oct 31 2005. Study Text, PDF

2004: "Well, the drug war has, from a physician’s point of view; the drug war has become a war on doctors who dare to competently and adequately treat pain. The data now is that probably, at the wildest estimate, there may 30 to 40 thousand doctors out of the million doctors in the United States who hold a narcotics license, there may be 30 or 40 thousand who are willing to effectively treat pain management…provide pain management. And in 2002 about 600 of them were prosecuted by the DEA which gives you a ratio of about one out every 80 practicing, full-time pain management doctors became a victim of the war on doctors and since the rate of incidence is cumulative, if you add another 600 in 2003, that’s about 1,000 to 1,200 doctors have gone through a career shattering experiences out of perhaps 40,000, so that’s one out every 40 practicing pain management doctors has gone through this. So it’s an outrageous situation and it’s no wonder that very few doctors are willing to treat patients in pain ... It’s all because of the mythology of the addiction from opioids, that if you take opioid medication you’re inevitably going to become addicted, which is complete mythology. I’ve even had patients tell me that doctors have told them, 'You can’t take these medicines because it will destroy your brain, it will destroy your liver.' When the truth of this matter is that these medicines are among the safest medicines prescribed in medicine today and in contrast…well, for example, there’s not one documented case of a patient dying from an overdose of oxycotin when they took the medicine as prescribed by their physician. In contrast, 17,000 people died from Tylenol toxicity the last year they have data. So, I mean the reality is, if you look at it rationally, Tylenol is a very dangerous drug; it’s un-regulated, over-the-counter. Opioids, which are extremely safe medications when taken as prescribed, and very effective, life-saving for an intractable pain patient, these are the focus of a campaign to absolutely discourage physicians from prescribing them." claims Dr Joel Hochman, Founder & Exec Dir, National Foundation for the Treament of Pain, Cultural Baggage radio show, Aug 10 2004.

2004: "The Emmy award-winning host [Montel Williams] of the nationally syndicated Montel Williams Show, recalled how prescription painkillers and even morphine failed to control his tremors and spasms. Williams said it was not until he started using marijuana that he was able to feel like a 'contributing member of society.' " reports Alicia Chang from "Montel Williams Pushes Pot – for Medical Relief", Associated Press, May 4 2004.

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... Presently he is taking Tylox [oxycodone and acetaminophen] 1 or 2 per day for severe headaches, Marinol to provide some daily control and Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] and Lithium to control the depression associated with his constant turmoil. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

"I have Multiple Sclerosis and have been able to receive little to no relief from the FDA approved medicines my doctors recommended. ... I took Vicodin [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] and Soma to help with pain. ... I am not taking any of those drugs now, I haven't for four years now I have been smoking medical marijuana. Since I have been medicating my body with marijuana I have never felt better, my disease has mostly gone into remission ... I am able to work part time and that was not something that was thought possible four short years ago. Marijuana has changed my life with the best possible thing - Hope." claims Meagan Boyd from "Patient Testimonials".

"The nerves in my neck were smashed in a gunshot accident ... I can move my arm, but I can't move my fingers. There is a kind of numbness from my left shoulder down to my pinkie. But there is also a burning feeling, like needles. I can't stand for anything to touch my arm – if I accidently hit it there is extreme pain. It throbs 24 hrs a day. I've been on numerous strong medicines, including Tawan NX, Vicodin 10 mg [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] , and methadone 10 mg 4 to 5 pills per day. Some days I can take less, depending on how much I use marijuana. I don't smoke to get stoned, I smoke it for relief from thinking about my arm all the time and to take away the pain. When I smoke marijuana, I can get things done around the house, it gets me energetic, gives me an appetite. I don't have an appetite when I don't have marijuana – I have to force myself to eat. The narcotics give you a state of mind where you don't eat – I had to get off Vicodin – I was taking too much – it was hurting my kidneys. There's some kind of aspirin in it, 600 mg per tablet, 5-6 tablets per day – we caught it just in time before it ruined my kidneys. So they put me back on methadone – I didn't want to get back on that – it makes me nauseated, not eat, sometimes makes me depressed. When I smoke, I don't have to take very much methadone and I have a better outlook on life." claims anonymous patient from "Nerve Damage".

"I have hypoglycemia, a form of diabetes. ... The second condition I treat with marijuana is TMJ disorder, referring to the temporo-mandibular joint of the jaw. Over the years, this condition has worn my cartilage away. The severity of pain is hard to describe, but if the pain was ranked in levels up to 5, I would say that level 3 I am nauseated from the pain. At level 4 I can barely move my jaws enough to talk and eating is difficult. The real challenge is to not vomit from the pain, because vomiting flexes my jaw. At level 5, I can't avoid vomiting and I can't eat, which causes my blood sugar to drop dangerously low. ... For the pain, I've tried Vicodin [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] , but marijuana is as effective as two Vicodin and the relief is immediate with easily controlled dosage. For the nausea and vomiting, marijuana is amazing. The nausea stops in two minutes, period. Even if I'm already vomiting, I can still get it in my system with a few puffs. ... I've been on Vicodin since December 2001, which is a very addicting drug and not recommended for long term use. Not only am I having symptoms of physical addiction, but it's making my condition worse by staying in my system too long and putting me into deep sleep which causes my blood sugar to drop. So the episodes that normally last 4-5 days are now lasting two weeks or more. When it finally eases up, I go through withdrawal. ... I believe God put marijuana on Earth as medicine to help people. I don't believe opiate addiction is part of God's plan for me. I could leave my home and family for a state where medical marijuana laws would protect me, but I am a grandmother and a granddaughter and don't want to leave my loved ones. ... Our doctor would recommend marijuana if he didn't face the threat of losing his license." claims anonymous female patient from "Appetite and Pain".

 

Paroxetine HCl (Paxil)

Also see Manic Depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

2004: Cannabis is "10 times more helpful than Paxil" as a confidence builder claims retired Miami Dolphin running back Ricky Williams, from "Run Ricky Run" by Fred Gardner, Aug 4 2004.

2001: "I have smoked weed off and on for 20 years, and now everyday. I find that with it I take less Paxil, and I am able to function better.", Manic-depression/obsessive compulsive disorder patient, Mar 11 2001.

"People being treated with Paxil have become violent and suicidal. Others have complained of severe withdrawal reactions." claims Law Offices of James Sokolove. paxil-side-effects-lawsuits.com

 

Phenobarbital

Also see Epilepsy, Seizures

2004: "Most of her life she was able to control her seizures with ... Phenobarbital ... About 5 years ago she started having auras and seizures that no prescription medication was able to control. ... The reason I'm writing is because we know that cannabis (marijuana) prevents her seizures. Not only do I know this but there are thousands of other patients out there that know it." claims "phatboy" – "5000 year old drug prevents seizures.", Epilepsy Foundation eCommunities Forums, Jan 8 2004.

2003: "DeLorenzo and his colleagues in the VCU Department of Neurology and the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology ... injected chronically epileptic rats with different combinations of six drugs: 1) an extract of marijuana, 2) two synthetic drugs that include the key psychoactive ingredients in marijuana, 3) the common anticonvulsant drugs Phenobarbital and phenytoin and 4) a drug to block the activation of the CB1 receptor by cannabinoids in the brain. The marijuana extract and synthetic marijuana drugs completely eliminated the rats’ seizures, which averaged three over a 10-hour period. The Phenobarbital ...failed to completely eliminate the seizures." claims Robert J DeLorenzo from "Marijuana and its receptor protein in brain control epilepsy", VCU News, Sept 30 2003.

 

Phenytoin (Dilantin)

Also see Depression, Epilepsy, Seizures

2004: "Most of her life she was able to control her seizures with dilantin ... About 5 years ago she started having auras and seizures that no prescription medication was able to control. ... The reason I'm writing is because we know that cannabis (marijuana) prevents her seizures. Not only do I know this but there are thousands of other patients out there that know it." claims "phatboy" – "5000 year old drug prevents seizures.", Epilepsy Foundation eCommunities Forums, Jan 8 2004.

2003: "DeLorenzo and his colleagues in the VCU Department of Neurology and the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology ... injected chronically epileptic rats with different combinations of six drugs: 1) an extract of marijuana, 2) two synthetic drugs that include the key psychoactive ingredients in marijuana, 3) the common anticonvulsant drugs Phenobarbital and phenytoin and 4) a drug to block the activation of the CB1 receptor by cannabinoids in the brain. The marijuana extract and synthetic marijuana drugs completely eliminated the rats’ seizures, which averaged three over a 10-hour period. The ... phenytoin failed to completely eliminate the seizures." claims Robert J DeLorenzo from "Marijuana and its receptor protein in brain control epilepsy", VCU News, Sept 30 2003.

2000: "I've heard that Dilantin is ~ the World's best anti-seizure drug and that it can be a very effective, fast-acting anti-depressant. Also, as I recall, one animal study was done with Dilantin and it ~ significantly extended the average lifespan of the animals. ... the full suite of Cannabinoids from the Cannabis Plant perform together as the World's most effective anti-seizure 'agent' or combination. Also, this herbal extract blend of Cannabinoids is a very safe and effective anti-depressant medicine ..." claims Pat from "Cannabis vs Dilantin. Safety Ratio. WoDs, etc.", Marihemp, July 2 2000.

 

Prochlorperazine (Compazine)

Also see Meclizine, Nausea, Ondansetron, Thiethylperazine

1988: "Patient evaluations have indicated that approximately ninety-three (93) percent of marijuana inhalation treatment episodes are reported to be 'effective' or 'highly effective' when compared to other antiemetics." 78% of 56 patients had no improvement with standard antiemetics, claims Vinciguerra, et al, "Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy", New York State Journal of Medicine, pgs 525-527, Oct 1988.

1983: Inhaled botanical cannabis is "far superior to the best available conventional drug, Compazine, and clearly superior to synthetic THC pill." claims the report of The Lynn Pierson Therapeutic Research Program, Behavioral Health Sciences Div, Health and Environment Department, State of New Mexico.

1981: "74 percent of the cancer patients treated in the program have reported that [inhaled] marijuana is more effective in relieveing their nausea and vomiting than any other drug they have tried." claims California Research Advisory Panel, Annual Report of the California Research Advisory Panel, vol 12, submitted to the Governor and Legislature.

"I was diagnosed with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis in 1986 ... My neurologist prescribed the drugs Compazine and Antivert. They had little affect on the nausea and no affect on the appetite, even after the dosage was doubled. After a couple of weeks of feeling sick and not eating, I had lost 15 pounds and no medication was helping. ... I decided to try smoking Cannabis/Marijuana. At first I felt worse, but after the effects of the smoke were gone I began to relax and get an appetite. I could finally eat again. Since that time, I have used cannabis to maintain a healthy body weight and a decent standard of living. For years I left my prescription drugs setting on the counter, as Cannabis was more effective." claims John E Precup from "Patient Testimonials"

 

Promethazine (Anegan, Fargan, Phenergan, Promahist, Promethegan, V-Gan)

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... There are occasions when he is seen in the office or the emergency room and given shots of Demerol [meperidine] and Phenergren [promethazine]. Even these shots do not give him full relief of his headaches, but do, when things are severe, give him a few hours of peace. The only drug that seems to give William any true felief from pain is that from smoking marijuana. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

 

Psilocybin

2006: "The least physiologically toxic substances, those requiring 100 to 1,000 times the effective dose to cause death, include psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana, when ingested. I've found no published cases in the English language that document deaths from smoked marijuana, so the actual lethal dose is a mystery." claims Robert S Gable, "The Toxicity of Recreational Drugs", American Scientist, May-June 2006.

 

Steroids & Hormones

Also see Asthma, Multiple Sclerosis

2005: "Cannabis-using Crohn's patients ... are also able to reduce the amount of immunosuppressive medications that have been a mainstay of conventional treatment. ... Steroids are noted to be reduced and often eliminated. ... Steroids have a host of common side effects including anxiety, depression, irritability, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain; and, with chronic use, bone thinning, glucose intolerance, peptic ulcers, and the Cushingoid state." reports Jeff Hergenrather, "Cannabis Alleviates Symptoms of Chrohn's [sic] Disease", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Autumn 2005.

 

Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)

Also see Colitis

"These [anti-inflammatory] drugs [Asacol, Azulfidine, Pentasa, Rowasa] provided minimal to no relief from symptoms while causing kidney pain, burning urination, significant loss of hair, further loss of appetite, and irritation to the rectum.... Using marijuana provided great relief from the pain, cramping, and nausea. It also resulted in fewer bowel movements each day, and increased my appetite helping me keep a more stable body weight. I also noticed it improved my mood so I wasn't feeling depressed all the time." claims anonymous Arkansas man from "Patient Story - Ulcerative Colitis".

 

Tacrine

2006: "It is noteworthy that THC is a considerably more effective inhibitor of AChE-induced [amyloid-beta-peptide] deposition than the approved drugs for Alzheimer's disease treatment, donepezil and tacrine, which reduced [amyloid-beta-peptide] aggregation by only 22% and 7%, respectively, at twice the concentration used in our studies. Therefore, AChE inhibitors such as THC and its analogues may provide an improved therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease, augmenting acetylcholine levels by preventing neurotransmitter degradation and reducing [amyloid-beta-peptide] aggregation, thereby simultaneously treating both the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer's disease." reports Lisa M Eubanks, Claude J Rogers, Albert E Beuscher IV, George F Koob, Arthur J Olson, Tobin J Dickerson, Kim D Janda from "A Molecular Link between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology", Molecular Pharmaceutics, Aug 9 2006

 

Thiethylperazine (Torecan)

Also see Meclizine, Nausea, Ondansetron, Prochlorperazine

1988: "Patient evaluations have indicated that approximately ninety-three (93) percent of marijuana inhalation treatment episodes are reported to be 'effective' or 'highly effective' when compared to other antiemetics." 78% of 56 patients had no improvement with standard antiemetics, claims Vinciguerra, et al, "Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy", New York State Journal of Medicine, pgs 525-527, Oct 1988.

1981: 95% of patients randomized to the antiemetic Torecan choose to discontinue use of Torecan and switched to cannabis, claims "Michigan Department of Public Health Marijuana Therapeutic Research Project, Trial A 1980-81", Department of Social Oncology, Evaluation Unit, Michigan Cancer Foundation, March 18, 1982.

1981: "74 percent of the cancer patients treated in the program have reported that [inhaled] marijuana is more effective in relieveing their nausea and vomiting than any other drug they have tried." claims California Research Advisory Panel, Annual Report of the California Research Advisory Panel, vol 12, submitted to the Governor and Legislature.

 

Tobacco

Includes nicotine

2013: "Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by [the equivalent of] 40 percent during treatment. ... This is the first study, as far as we are aware, to demonstrate the impact of CBD on cigarette smoking. ... These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration." – "Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: Preliminary findings" by Celia JA Morgan, Ravi K Das, Alyssa Joye, H Valerie Curran, Sunjeev K Kamboj, Addictive Behaviors, vol 38 no 9, Sept 2013, pgs 2433-2436.

2008: "... the relative risk of ... contracting head and neck cancer in marijuana users was the same (1.0) as in those who had never smoked cannabis. These results differ from the relative risk of contracting cancer from smoking [tobacco] cigarettes (2.1) ... compared with those who abstained from those activities." – "Small study shows marijuana does not increase risk of head, neck cancer", Mar 5 2008

2008: "Cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for periodontal disease that is independent of the use of tobacco. ... Tobacco smoking was strongly associated with periodontal disease experience, but there was no interaction between cannabis use and tobacco smoking in predicting the condition's occurrence." claims W Murray Thomson, et al, "Cannabis Smoking and Periodontal Disease Among Young Adults", Journal of Amercian Medical Association, Feb 6 2008

2006: "... Thomas Glynn, the ACS's director of cancer science and trends, concedes that Swedish-style snuff (a.k.a. snus) 'may be less harmful than other smokeless tobacco products and cigarettes,' ... First, there's no 'may be'about it: Smokeless tobacco is indisputably much safer than cigarettes. Second, while Swedish methods produce oral snuff with lower levels of certain carcinogens than the old-style American process, all forms of smokeless tobacco are much less hazardous than cigarettes. The difference in risk between different kinds of oral snuff pales in comparison to the huge difference in risk between oral snuff and cigarettes. ... Smokeless tobacco is cheaper than other forms of nicotine replacement, it delivers levels of nicotine closer to those smokers are used to, and in the form of Swedish-style snus it poses negligible health risks. ..." claims Jacob Sullum from "Anti-Smokers Inch Toward Pandora's Box of Snuff", Aug 11 2006.

2005: "A recent study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests that smoking pot can make the brain grow. Though most drugs inhibit the growth of new brain cells, injections of a synthetic cannibinoid have had the opposite effect in mice in a study performed at the University of Saskatchewan. ... Many drugs – heroin, cocaine, and the more common alcohol and nicotine – inhibit the growth of these new cells. It was thought that marijuana did the same thing, but this new research suggests otherwise. ... The researchers found that rats treated with HU-210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] on a regular basis showed neurogenesis – the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus. " reports Juanita King from "science: Study shows marijuana increases brain cell growth", The Peak, Oct 31 2005. Study Text, PDF

2005: "Marijuana smoking -'even heavy longterm use'- does not cause cancer of the lung, upper airwaves, or esophagus, Donald Tashkin reported at this year's meeting of the International Cannabinoid Research Society. ... The data on tobacco use, as expected, revealed 'a very potent effect and a clear dose-response relationship -a 21-fold greater risk of developing lung cancer if you smoke more than two packs a day.' Similarly high odds obtained for oral/pharyngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer and esophageal cancer." reports Fred Gardner from "Study: Smoking Marijuana Does Not Cause Lung Cancer", CounterPunch, July 2-4 2005.

2004: "A life of [tobacco] cigarette smoking will be, on average, 10 years shorter than life without it. ... almost half of all persistent [tobacoo] cigarette smokers were killed by their habit, and a quarter died before age 70. ... someone who stops [tobacco] smoking by age 30 has the same average life expectancy as a nonsmoker, and someone who stops at age 50 will lose four, rather than 10, years of life." claims Richard Doll in British Medical Journal, June 22 2004, as reported by Marc Kaufman, Washington Post.

2003: "Researchers ... further noted that the total mortality risks associated with marijuana use were lower than those for tobacco-cigarette smoking for both men and women.” from "Marijuana Smoking Doesn't Lead to Higher Death Rate", O'Shaughnessy's Jouurnal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

2002: "Smoking pure marijuana is at least as harmful to lungs as smoking tobacco, a report from the British Lung Foundation concludes. And in some key ways, it may be more dangerous. For example, the BLF's review of previous research highlights that just three marijuana joints a day causes the same damage to the lung's airways as 20 cigarettes, mainly because of the way joints are smoked. Individually, cannabis and tobacco produce the same constituents and quantities of chemicals known to be toxic to respiratory tissue, other than nicotine, the report says. But when cannabis and tobacco are smoked together, the health effects are worse. ... Other points in the report include: Tar from cannabis cigarettes contains up to 50 per cent higher concentrations of carcinogens benzathracenes and benzpyrenes than tobacco smoke. ... Lyndon Pugh, editor of pro-cannabis magazine CC Newz, is not impressed by the report: 'These allegations have been made before countless times. Lot of things are dangerous, like driving.' " claims Emma Young, "Cannabis smoking 'more harmful' than tobacco", New Scientist news service, Nov 11 2002.

1997: "In summary, this study showed little, if any, effect of marijuana use on nonAIDS mortality in men and on total mortality in women. ... The risk of mortality associated with marijuana use was lower than that associated with tobacco cigarette smoking." claims Stephen Sidney MD, Jerome E Bech PhD, Irene S Tekawa MA, Charles P Quesenberry Jr PhD, and Gary D Friedman MD from "Marijuana Use and Mortality", American Journal of Public Health, April, 1997.

(John) Galt, Jr's Comparison of Marijuana and Tobacco
members.aol.com/johng101/cancer.htm, members.aol.com/outofbonds/cancer.htm

 

Tysabri

Also see Multiple Sclerosis

2006: "Tysabri has been linked to a potentially fatal brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML. The drug's manufacturers voluntarily pulled it from the market last year, following the deaths of two patients. The drug had been sold for just four months. Dozens of multiple sclerosis patients told a Food and Drug Administration advisory committee Tuesday that they should be allowed to choose whether to take Tysabri. ... In statements frequently punctuated by sobbing pleas, patients told the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs advisory committee that MS posed an even greater risk than did PML. ... Biogen Idec and Elan withdrew Tysabri from the market in February 2005 after two patients in clinical trials involving 7,000 people died of PML." reports Associated Press "FDA panel mulls rare reversal on MS drug", Mar 8 2006

 

 

Crohn's Disease

Also see Gastrointestinal, Immune System, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Mesalamine, Steroids

2005: "For all signs and symptoms evaluated in the study, the patients described marked improvements with the use of cannabis. Beneficial effects were reported for appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, activity, and depression. Patients also reported that cannabis use resulted in weight gain, fewer stools per day and fewer flare-ups of less severity. ... Cannabis-using Crohn's patients not only report significant relief of their symptoms, they are also able to reduce the amount of immunosuppressive medications that have been a mainstay of conventional treatment. Imuran, methotrexate, 6 MP, and Remicade (an anti-TNF drug) are greatly reduced. Asacol and Pentasa brands of Mesalamine, an anti-inflammatory medication with immuno-modulating properties is also reduced in many cases. Steroids are noted to be reduced and often eliminated. The immunosuppressives cause the same side effects that the disease causes: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Mesalamine frequently was reported to cause rash, itching, and photosensitivity. Steroids have a host of common side effects including anxiety, depression, irritability, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain; and, with chronic use, bone thinning, glucose intolerance, peptic ulcers, and the Cushingoid state. ... Some of the patients' responses include these telling remarks: 'A terrific reliever of Crohn's symptoms.', 'A more easily controlled medication than offered by pills.', 'Alcohol has been a big problem for me that I don't have with cannabis.', 'Only positive effects, no negative effects.', 'Best appetite stimulant, very good calming effect.', 'Cannabis provides relief without knocking me out or other bad side effects that I had with steroids.', 'I've committed myself to this form of therapy, and my quality of life has improved by leaps and bounds.', 'I've struggled for years with opiate addiction from chronic pancreatitis –cannabis lets me control my pain without being a slave to opiates.', 'Marinol bothered my stomach –I don't get sick, constipated, or vomit with cannabis.' " reports Jeff Hergenrather, "Cannabis Alleviates Symptoms of Chrohn's [sic] Disease", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Autumn 2005.

2005: "Cannabis-based drugs could offer treatment hope to sufferers of inflammatory bowel disease, UK researchers report. Cannabis smokers with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have often claimed that smoking a joint seems to lessen their symptoms. So a group of researchers from Bath University and Bristol University, both in the UK, decided to explore the clinical basis for the claims. 'There is quite a lot of anecdotal evidence that using cannabis seems to reduce the pain and frequency of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis ...' says Karen Wright, a pharmacologist at Bath University. 'Historically, it was smoked in India and China centuries ago for its gastrointestinal properties.' ... To their surprise, the team discovered CB1 cannabinoid receptors – which are known to be present in the brain – in the endothelial cells which line the gut. 'I think they must be involved in repairing the lining of the gut when it is damaged,' Wright says. She deliberately damaged the cells to cause inflammation of the gut lining and then added synthetically produced cannabinoids. 'The gut started to heal: the broken cells were repaired and brought back closer together to mend the tears,' ... Previous studies have shown that CB1 receptors located on the nerve cells in the gut respond to cannabinoids by slowing gut motility, therefore reducing the painful muscle contractions associated with diarrhoea. But Wright and her team also discovered another cannabinoid receptor, CB2, in the guts of IBD sufferers, which was not present in healthy guts. These receptors, which also respond to chemicals in cannabis, appear to be associated with apoptosis – programmed cell death – and may have a role in suppressing the overactive immune system and reducing inflammation by moping up excess cells, she suggests." reports Gaia Vince from "Cannabis may soothe inflamed bowels", New Scientist, Aug 1 2005.

2005: "I've managed a Crohn's affliction very well for 20 years, the last 12 of them prescription free except for one month when upon getting a colonoscopy and being willing to try something else, I agreed to try Pentasa [Mesalamine]. I pooped my brains out almost immediately and for the next 5 days in spite of taking the drug for only two, on the maximum dose the doctor felt I needed. I had to work up to that dose slowly after two weeks off of it, and it seemed to work, but then he wanted me to take monthly blood tests! Needless to say, I'll never be back to that doctor.
   My secret weapon has always been marijuana against the spasming and pains of Crohn's, but I've also learned a few other things that are necessary to keep me healthy, that are more important. By itself, it doesn't stop the flare-ups (and from my experience nothing does that doesn't potentially carry bigger problems in the long run.) What it does do is ease the pain, and calm the system - which stops most all further pain. But the secret to successfully living with Crohn's for me has been balanced diet, balanced vitamin supplement, and stress management including regular marijuana smoking through a water pipe." claims James Moore, Crohn's patient.

2004: "Cannabis extracts may be well suited to treatment of inflammatory diseases due to their multiple mechanisms of action. THC seemingly alleviates pain, spasm and diarrhoea, while the CBD component presents the likelyhood of immunomodulatory benefits. One recently demonstrated CBD effect is its ability to inhibit TFN-a (tissue necrosis factor-alpha), a proven mechanism of other agents employed to treat inflammatory bowel disease." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "The nonpsychoactive cannabis constiuent cannabidiol is an oral anti-artritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis." by AM Mafait, R Gallily, PF Sumariwalla, AS Malik, E Andreakos, R Mechoulam, et al, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 2000;97(17), pgs 9561-9566.

2004: "Numerous studies in the 1970s indicated that THC slowed intestinal passage of a charcoal meal in rodents. Cannabidiol (CBD) had little effect of its own, but synergized the effects of THC." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "Interaction of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on intestinal motility in mice" by PF Anderson, DM Jackson, GB Chesher, Journal Pharm Pharmacology 1974:26(2), pgs 136-137.

 

 

Depression

Also see Anxiety, Manic-Depression

2005: "We show that 1 month after chronic HU210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] treatment, rats display increased newborn neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and significantly reduced measures of anxiety- and depression-like behavior. Thus, cannabinoids appear to be the only illicit drug whose capacity to produce increased hippocampal newborn neurons is positively correlated with its anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects. ... To determine the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects produced by chronic HU210, we examined the effects of a selective destruction of the hippocampal neural stem cells on the behavioral effects of chronic HU210. During the course of receiving chronic HU210 injections, 1 group of Long-Evans rats received two 5-Gy doses of x-rays confined to a limited brain region including the hippocampus ... Because two 5-Gy doses of x-rays were not found to alter the morphology and function of mature neurons in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala, our results together suggest that chronic HU210 treatment reduced anxiety and depression, likely via promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. It has been shown that acute, high doses of CB1 agonists or cannabinoids produced anxiety-like effects in ratsor depression-like effects in mice. We observed here that chronic administration of high, but not low, doses of HU210 exerts anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects. To make things more complicated, acute, low doses of cannabinoids have been found to induce anxiolytic-like effects in rodents. These complicated effects of high and low doses of acute and chronic exposure to cannabinoids may explain the seemingly conflicting results observed in clinical studies regarding the effects of cannabinoid on anxiety and depression. In summary, since adult hippocampal neurogenesis is suppressed following chronic administration of opiates, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, the present study suggests that cannabinoids are the only illicit drug that can promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis following chronic administration. Increased hippocampal neurogenesis appears to underlie the mechanism of anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects produced by a high dose of chronic HU210 treatment. The opposing effects of high doses of acute and chronic cannabinoids, together with the anxiolytic-like effects caused by a low dose of cannabinoids, may finally explain discrepancies in the clinical study literature regarding the effects of cannabinoid on anxiety and depression." claims Wen Jiang, Yun Zhang, Lan Xiao, Jamie Van Cleemput, Shao-Ping Ji, Guang Bai, Xia Zhang, "Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects", Journal of Clinical Investigation, Nov 1 2005. PDF

2005: "The researchers found that rats treated with HU-210 [a potent synthetic cannabinoid] on a regular basis showed neurogenesis – the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus. A current hypothesis suggests depression may be triggered when the hippocampus grows insufficient numbers of new brain cells. If true, HU-210 could offer a treatment for such mood disorders by stimulating this growth. Whether this is true for all cannabinoids remains unclear, as HU-210 is only one of many and the HU-210 in the study is highly purified." reports Juanita King from "science: Study shows marijuana increases brain cell growth", The Peak, Oct 31 2005. Study Text, PDF

2002: "The link between regular cannabis use and later depression and schizophrenia has been significantly strengthened by three new studies. ... One of the key conclusions of the research is that people who start smoking cannabis as adolescents are at the greatest risk of later developing mental health problems. Another team calculates that eliminating cannabis use in the UK population could reduce cases of schizophrenia by 13 per cent. Until now, say Rey and Tennant, there was 'a dearth of reliable evidence' to support the idea that cannabis use could cause schizophrenia or depression. That lack of good evidence 'has handicapped the development of rational public health policies,' according to one of the research groups, led by George Patton at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Melbourne, Australia. The reason for the link is unclear. Social consequences of frequent cannabis use include educational failure and unemployment, which could increase the risk of depression. 'However, because the risk seems confined largely to daily users, the question about a direct pharmacological effect remains,' says Patton. ... The new analysis revealed a dose-dependant relationship between the frequency of cannabis use and schizophrenia. This held true in men with no psychotic symptoms before they started using cannabis, suggesting they were not self-medicating. Finally, researchers led by Terrie Moffitt at King's College London, UK, analysed comprehensive data on over 1000 people born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972 and 1973. They found that people who used cannabis by age 15 were four times as likely to have a diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder (a milder version of schizophrenia) at age 26 than non-users. But when the number of psychotic symptoms at age 11 was controlled for, this increased risk dropped to become non-significant. This suggests that people already at greater risk of later developing mental health problems are also more likely to smoke cannabis. The total number of high quality studies on cannabis use and mental health disorders remains small, stress Rey and Tennant. And it is still not clear whether cannabis can cause these conditions in people not predisposed by genetic factors, for example, to develop them." claims Emma Young from "Cannabis link to mental illness strengthened", New Scientist news service, Nov 21 2002.

2000: "I've heard that Dilantin is ~ the World's best anti-seizure drug and that it can be a very effective, fast-acting anti-depressant. ... the full suite of Cannabinoids from the Cannabis Plant perform together as the World's most effective anti-seizure 'agent' or combination. Also, this herbal extract blend of Cannabinoids is a very safe and effective anti-depressant medicine ..." claims Pat from "Cannabis vs Dilantin. Safety Ratio. WoDs, etc.", Marihemp, July 2 2000.

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... Presently he is taking Tylox [oxycodone and acetaminophen] 1 or 2 per day for severe headaches, Marinol to provide some daily control and Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] and Lithium to control the depression associated with his constant turmoil. There are occasions when he is seen in the office or the emergency room and given shots of Demerol [meperidine] and Phenergren [promethazine]. Even these shots do not give him full relief of his headaches, but do, when things are severe, give him a few hours of peace. The only drug that seems to give William any true felief from pain is that from smoking marijuana. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug. It should be noted that the Marinol only gives him partial and inadequate pain relief." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

"I have now identified past episodes of double depression with chronic depression starting in High School. I also have social phobias. ... I am presently taking 300mg/day of Effexor. The medication does help with the depression and with the social phobia but it is not a cure all. The side effects for me are reduced sexual drive and sexual dysfunction, greatly increased cravings for simple carbohydrates and weird, intense and sometimes disturbing dreams. It is also rather expensive at $140/month.  Marijuana has a quick and in most cases a very positive effect on my mood and social phobias. The main negative seems to be related to its illegal status and the paranoia that causes. ... I have noticed that very small dose will elevate my mood without me being spacey or having problems with short term memory loss. ... After almost a year on Effexor I got to the point that I could no longer handle the side effects. When it came time to refill my prescription I decided not to and quit cold turkey. I stayed stoned for the next two weeks and this really helped me make the transition. As long as I stayed stoned I was okay but when I was not the depression hit hard. If you have never been so depressed that suicide makes sense it may be hard to understand what this is like. ... During this period I did experiment with making marijuana cookies. I found that this worked much better. The dose would kick in more slowly and would hold out much longer. ... Marijuana did help me through some really rough times and without it I likely would have committed suicide. It seems to me that pot needs to be the first medication a person gets when they fall into a deep depression especially if suicide is an issue. This would get the person out of their depression quickly and would allow time to find the best long-term meds. It is real sad for me to hear how teens that are suddenly taken off pot after daily use all to often commit suicide. I believe that if someone with undiagnosed depression is using pot to self medicate they are at a high risk of suicide if they are taken off pot suddenly and the underlying depression is not addressed." claims anonymous patient from "Depression".

 

 

Diabetes

2013: "there are limited data regarding the relationship between cannabinoids and metabolic processes. Epidemiologic studies have found lower prevalence rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus in marijuana users compared with people who have never used marijuana, suggesting a relationship between cannabinoids and peripheral metabolic processes." claims Elizabeth A Penner, Hannah Buettner, Murray A Mittleman, from "The Impact of Marijuana Use on Glucose, Insulin, and Insulin Resistance among US Adults".

2001: "I have been a diabetic for 25 of those years. During this time, I have had amputations to both feet. I've also had a stroke and am on dialysis. I have what is called neuropathy. This is a highly painful nerve disorder. Sometimes the pain was so severe I would wish my hands were cut off. I was taking 2800mg of Neuroten a day plus 4 to 6 Percocet. I also have severe hypertension and take 100 mg of Zoloft. After two years I became so dependent on the Percocet. I was taking sometimes more than 10 a day. Then I started smoking marijuana. It helped me stop taking the narcotics. I have stopped taking Percocet and take only 400mg of the Neuroten. My pain is gone. When I get really hyper I take about three hits and stay calm for hours. This dialysis really zaps your energy. But I take a few hits after treatment, and have energy to function all day." claims anonymous patient from "Patient Story - Neuropathy", May 6 2001, updated July 19 2001.

"My sister died two years ago at the age of 71 from complications from diabetes. ... Prior to her death she was in extreme pain, and had great difficulty in eating due to constant nausea in addition to the pain. The usually prescribed pain killers dulled her thinking, and at the same time her tolerance to those increased to the point that they did little good. ... Although she was terminal, I cannot tell you how much the quality of her remaining days improved with the use of marijuana." claims anonymous sibling from "Relief in Pain and Dying - Patient Story".

 

 

Dialysis

Also see Nausea

2001: "I have been a diabetic for 25 of those years. During this time, I have had amputations to both feet. I've also had a stroke and am on dialysis. I have what is called neuropathy. ... Then I started smoking marijuana. ... This dialysis really zaps your energy. But I take a few hits after treatment, and have energy to function all day." claims anonymous patient from "Patient Story - Neuropathy", May 6 2001, updated July 19 2001.

 

 

Epilepsy

Also see Pain, Spasticity

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids in the treatment of ... seizure disorders such as epilepsy." claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2004: "I'm fighting for the right to use cannabis to prevent uncontrollable seizures where over 20 Rx meds and surgery have failed.... My mother has had epilepsy all her life. Most of her life she was able to control her seizures with dilantin, Phenobarbital and most recently Tegretol. About 5 years ago she started having auras and seizures that no prescription medication was able to control. ... The reason I'm writing is because we know that cannabis (marijuana) prevents her seizures. Not only do I know this but there are thousands of other patients out there that know it. ... The Ohio State Medical Society convened a committee that reported on the medicinal properties of cannabis in 1860. W.P. Kincaid reported: “I have treated four cases of epilepsy with the hemp; two were permanently benefited (at least to the present time); one temporarily, and one not at all.” Major pharmaceutical firms listed epilepsy as one of the conditions for which cannabis was indicated either alone or as an ingredient in combination preparations." claims "phatboy" – "5000 year old drug prevents seizures.", Epilepsy Foundation eCommunities Forums, Jan 8 2004.

2003: "Ingredients in marijuana and the cannabinoid receptor protein produced naturally in the body to regulate the central nervous system and other bodily functions play a critical role in controlling spontaneous seizures in epilepsy, according to a new study by researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University. The study, the first to look at marijuana and the brain’s cannabinoid system in live animals with spontaneous, recurrent seizures, suggests new avenues that researchers can explore in their search for more-effective drugs to treat epileptic patients who don’t respond to today’s anticonvulsant medications or surgery. ... '... individuals both here and abroad report that marijuana has been therapeutic for them in the treatment of a variety of ailments, including epilepsy,' says Dr. Robert J. DeLorenzo, professor of neurology in the VCU School of Medicine. 'If we can understand how marijuana works to end seizures, we may be able to develop novel drugs that might do a better job of treating epileptic seizures.' DeLorenzo and his colleagues in the VCU Department of Neurology and the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology have been studying the therapeutic effects of marijuana on epilepsy and other illnesses for more than a decade. They were the first three years ago to show that cannabinoids work at controlling seizures by activating a protein known as the CB1 receptor that is found in the memory-related area of the brain, the nervous system and other tissues and organs in the body. Research has shown that the CB1 receptor is responsible for the psychoactive effects of marijuana. It also is responsible for controlling excitability and regulating relaxation. ... The team injected chronically epileptic rats with different combinations of six drugs: 1) an extract of marijuana, 2) two synthetic drugs that include the key psychoactive ingredients in marijuana, 3) the common anticonvulsant drugs Phenobarbital and phenytoin and 4) a drug to block the activation of the CB1 receptor by cannabinoids in the brain. The marijuana extract and synthetic marijuana drugs completely eliminated the rats’ seizures, which averaged three over a 10-hour period. The Phenobarbital and phenytoin failed to completely eliminate the seizures. Injection of the CB1 antagonist significantly increased the both the duration and frequency of seizures, in some cases to a level consistent with a severe, prolonged form of epilepsy known as status epilepticus. 'This study indicates that cannabinoids may offer unique advantages in treating seizures compared with currently prescribed anticonvulsants,' DeLorenzo said. 'It shows not only the anticonvulsant activity of exogenously applied cannabinoids but also suggests that the brain’s cannabinoid system works to limit seizure duration by activating the CB1 receptor. Understanding the factors that contribute to seizure initiation and termination has important implications for our ability to treat epilepsy and for the potential development of novel anticonvulsant agents.' " claims Robert J DeLorenzo from "Marijuana and its receptor protein in brain control epilepsy", VCU News, Sept 30 2003.

2000: "I've heard that Dilantin is ~ the World's best anti-seizure drug and that it can be a very effective, fast-acting anti-depressant. Also, as I recall, one animal study was done with Dilantin and it ~ significantly extended the average lifespan of the animals. ... the full suite of Cannabinoids from the Cannabis Plant perform together as the World's most effective anti-seizure 'agent' or combination. Also, this herbal extract blend of Cannabinoids is a very safe and effective anti-depressant medicine ..." claims Pat from "Cannabis vs Dilantin. Safety Ratio. WoDs, etc.", Marihemp, July 2 2000.

1990: "It wasn't until I used marijuana that my seizures went away. For 10 years I was in good shape. Now, in the last 11 months since I've been denied marijuana, I've had 85 petit mal seizures and two grand mal seizures." claims Gordon Hanson, epilepsy patient, after his release from jail.

"Marijuana and epilepsy: paradoxical anticonvulsant and convulsant effects" by D M Feeney, Marijuana Biological Effects: Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and the Brain, edited by Gabriel G Nahas, Paxton, D Petro, published by Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, pgs 643-657.

Cannabis Prevents Seizures
fgi.net/~lstevens/cannabis/page.htm

 

 

Fibromyaliga

"Ten years ago, I was an addiction professional, working in a chemical dependency program. I also worked in DWI programs. Five years ago, I was in an auto accident that totaled my truck and me. ... my doctor diagnosed me with fibromyaliga. I lived in chronic pain and soon discovered there was no relief for it. I tried nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but they caused me to have edema in my feet and legs. I tried muscle relaxants but they lost their effectiveness at the prescribed dose and didn't work any better at a higher dose. ... With trepidation I lit the pipe, drew deeply and inhaled. I repeated this two or three times and slowly a deep peace settled over me. My tight muscles began to relax, a big grin spread over my face and I felt like the person I used to be, before the accident. I couldn't say I was totally pain free but I wasn't consumed with it either. I felt slightly removed from the pain in my body and slept better that night than I had in years. The next morning l sat and dealt with the cognitive dissonance produced by the idea of smoking reefer to control pain. I was an addiction professional, had done my graduate training in that field and knew that marijuana had no physically addictive qualities to it. ... I started researching medical use of marijuana on the Internet. l quickly realized that use of marijuana didn't equal abuse of marijuana. I read enough reports, studies and anecdotal reports to believe l'd finally hit on the least harmful way for me to deal with chronic pain." claims anonymous patient from "My Story".

 

 

Food and Drug Administration

United States Food and Drug Administration, 5600 Fishers Ln, Rockville, MD 20857, 888-463-6332, fda.gov

Investigational New Drug Compassionate Access Program
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compassionate_Investigational_New_Drug_program

Investigational New Drug Compassionate Access Program prescription cannabis recipients:
Barbara Douglas, George McMahon, Corrine Millet (deceased), Elvy Musikka, Robert C Randall (deceased), Irvin Rosenfeld, at least 2 anonymous living patients, and at least 4 other deceased patients
medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/bin/procon/procon.cgi?database=5-F-Subs-3.db&command=viewone&op=t&id=5&rnd=556.0115317119844

 

Foods

includes beverages, cooking, edible extracts, food preparation, recipes
also see Hemp, Ingestion, Seeds

Foods Organizations & Websites:

American Alliance for Medical Cannabis
"Cooking with Cannabis" letfreedomgrow.com/recipes/index.htm

Canadian Hemp Trade Alliance
"Recipes" hemptrade.ca/products.php

Cannabis.net
"Banana Cake" cannabis.net/faq/cannabis-eating-faq.html#cake
"Banana Loaf" cannabis.net/faq/cannabis-eating-faq.html#loaf
"Brownies" cannabis.net/faq/cannabis-eating-faq.html#gaspo
"Butter" cannabis.net/faq/cannabis-eating-faq.html#bed
"Cannabis Eating FAQ" cannabis.net/faq/cannabis-eating-faq.html
"Tea" cannabis.net/faq/cannabis-eating-faq.html#tea

Drugs Plaza
"Recipes" drugs-plaza.com/recipes.htm

Erowid
"Beer" erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_recipe6.shtml
"Bhang" erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_recipe1.shtml
"CannaButter" erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_recipe2.shtml
"Cannabis Eating FAQ" erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_faq_eat.shtml
"Cookies" erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_recipe3.shtml
"Majoon" erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_recipe5.shtml
"Preparing Cannabis for Eating" erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_recipe4.shtml

High Times
"Cooking With Cannabis" hightimes.com/tags/cooking_with_cannabis

I Am Cannabian!
"Cannabis Recipes" iamcannabian.com/recipes.php

Lycaeum
"Bhang" leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=4774
"Butter" leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=11673
"Cooking with Cannabis" users.lycaeum.org/~sky/data/cooking.html
"Hot Buttered Bhang" leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=12266

OnlinePot
"An Original 1890 Cookbook To Adapt For Marijuana Cooking Recipes" onlinepot.org/1890cookbook.htm
"Medical Marijuana Cannabis Cooking Recipes" onlinepot.org/recipes.htm

Therapeutic Help from Cannabis for Multiple Sclerosis
"Medicinal Recipes" thc4ms.org/recipes.php?mu=whtml&lw=468&lf=jpg

Web Station #19
"Cooking with Pot, Recipes and links" webstation19.8k.com/MLINK4.HTM
"Eating Marijuana for fun and health" webstation19.8k.com/eatmjfaq.htm
"More Eating Marijuana FAQs" webstation19.8k.com/EATMJ2.HTM

Foods Books:
The Alice B Toklas Cook Book by Alice B Toklas
Gourmet Cannabis Cookery: The High Art of Marijuana Cuisine by Dan D Lyon
Marijuana Beer by Ed Rosenthal
Marijuana Herbal Cookbook by Tom Flowers
Stir Crazy: Cooking With Cannabis by Bobcat Press
The Art and Science of Cooking with Cannabis by Adam Gottlieb
The Marijuana Chef Cookbook by S T Oner
The Marijuana Food Handbook: A Guide for the Sensuous Connoisseur by Bill Drake

 

 

Gastrointestinal Disorders

includes stomach, intestines, bowels
also see Crohn's, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Ingestion, Nausea

2005: "Cannabis-based drugs could offer treatment hope to sufferers of inflammatory bowel disease, UK researchers report. Cannabis smokers with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have often claimed that smoking a joint seems to lessen their symptoms. So a group of researchers from Bath University and Bristol University, both in the UK, decided to explore the clinical basis for the claims. 'There is quite a lot of anecdotal evidence that using cannabis seems to reduce the pain and frequency of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis ...' says Karen Wright, a pharmacologist at Bath University. 'Historically, it was smoked in India and China centuries ago for its gastrointestinal properties.' ... To their surprise, the team discovered CB1 cannabinoid receptors – which are known to be present in the brain – in the endothelial cells which line the gut. 'I think they must be involved in repairing the lining of the gut when it is damaged,' Wright says. She deliberately damaged the cells to cause inflammation of the gut lining and then added synthetically produced cannabinoids. 'The gut started to heal: the broken cells were repaired and brought back closer together to mend the tears,' ... Previous studies have shown that CB1 receptors located on the nerve cells in the gut respond to cannabinoids by slowing gut motility, therefore reducing the painful muscle contractions associated with diarrhoea. But Wright and her team also discovered another cannabinoid receptor, CB2, in the guts of IBD sufferers, which was not present in healthy guts. These receptors, which also respond to chemicals in cannabis, appear to be associated with apoptosis – programmed cell death – and may have a role in suppressing the overactive immune system and reducing inflammation by moping up excess cells, she suggests." reports Gaia Vince from "Cannabis may soothe inflamed bowels", New Scientist, Aug 1 2005.

2004: "Cannabis extracts may be well suited to treatment of inflammatory diesases due to their multiple mechanisms of action. THC seemingly alleviates pain, spasm and diarrhoea, while the CBD component presents the likelyhood of immunomodulatory benefits. One recently demonstrated CBD effect is its ability to inhibit TFN-a (tissue necrosis factor-alpha), a proven mechanism of other agents employed to treat inflammatory bowel disease." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "The nonpsychoactive cannabis constiuent cannabidiol is an oral anti-artritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis." by AM Mafait, R Gallily, PF Sumariwalla, AS Malik, E Andreakos, R Mechoulam, et al, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 2000;97(17), pgs 9561-9566.

2004: "Numerous studies in the 1970s indicated that THC slowed intestinal passage of a charcoal meal in rodents. Cannabidiol (CBD) had little effect of its own, but synergized the effects of THC." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "Interaction of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on intestinal motility in mice" by PF Anderson, DM Jackson, GB Chesher, Journal Pharm Pharmacology 1974:26(2), pgs 136-137.

1997: In February, Boston researchers report tetra-hydro-cannabinol injected directly into rat stomachs did not cause cancer.

 

 

Glaucoma

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids in the treatment of ... glaucoma" claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

1980: "Efficacy in glaucoma treatment – the potential of marijuana" by T Zimmerman, Annals of Opthalmology, pgs 449-450.

1980: "Effect of marijuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma" by J Merritt, W Crawford, P Alexander, A Anduze and S Gelbart, Opthalmology, vol 87, pgs 222-228.

1978: "Marijuana as a treatment for glaucoma" by I Goldberg, M Kass and B Becker, Sightsaving Review, Winter 1978-79, pgs 147-154.

1976: "Experiences with administration of marijuana to glaucoma" by R Hepler and R Petrus, Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, edited by Cohen and Stillman, pgs 63-75.

1974: "The Ocular Manifestation of the Cannabinoids" by D Shapiro, Ophthalmologica, vol 168, pgs 366-369.

1972: "Pupillary constriction after marijuana smoking" by R Hepler, I Frank and J Ungerleider, American Journal of Opthalmology, vol 74, pgs 1185-1190.

1971: "Marijuana smoking and intraocular pressure" by R Hepler and I Frank, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol 217, pg 1932.

"... at least 10% of all cases fail to be completely controlled by available prescriptive drugs. In some instances available glaucomic medications can cause side-effects such as headaches, kidney stones, burning of the eyes, blurred vision, cardiac arrhythmias, insomnia, and nervous anxiety. These side-effects may become so severe that the patient must discontinue use. Marijuana has shown promise as a possible glaucoma treatment in numerous published studies. In controlled studies at UCLA, it was discovered that patients smoking marijuana experienced, on average, a 30% drop in eye pressure. The reduction was dose related and lasted 4 to 5 hours. Dr. Robert Hepler, principal investigator in the UCLA study, concluded that cannabis may be more useful than conventional medications and may reduce eye pressure in a way that conventional medications do not, thus making marijuana a potential additive to the glaucoma patient's regimen of available medication. Tolerance to conventional medications is a common problem in glaucoma control. The use of marijuana for additional IOP reduction could eliminate the need for surgical intervention. Glaucoma surgery costs Americans an estimated $8.8 million per year. Scientists have been working to develop a marijuana eyedrop for several years. Until recently, they concentrated on delta-9-THC, marijuana's psychoactive ingredient. Some researchers, however, have begun to wonder if other constituents in the cannabis plant might be more effective in reducing IOP. This theory is bolstered by the few glaucoma patients who have continued, legal access to marijuana. In these cases, synthetic THC is only effective for a short period of time. Natural marijuana, however, consistently lowers IOP. A number of pharmaceutical companies are investigating drugs that are chemically similar to various constituents of cannabis for possible glaucomic applications. A West Indies pharmaceutical company has developed a synthetic marijuana eyedrop but this is unavailable in the U.S." claims Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics from "Medical Use of Marijuana by Patients with Glaucoma"

"... in 1974 ... a storm caused a no-fault head-on wreck ... I woke up from a coma four days later ... I lost my left eye and the left side of my face and jaw. ... I had injury-induced glaucoma in my right eye, according to the opthamologist ... they put me on a steady diet of atropine and pilocarpene, alternating doses. After stepping up the doses a year later, he declared it was hopeless and said I'd be totally blind within a year. ... Pharmacopeias and the U. S. Dispensary all refer to pharmaceutical grade cannabis. ... I contacted Bob Randall, who was the first glaucoma patient to get legal cannabis in the United States. He told me he smoked a joint of buds every two hours (while awake) for over ten years, supplied by the government. He was doing fine. ... I have over 25 years of drawing evidence of the positive effects of steady use of cannabis. ... Cannabis improves the quality of my illustration. It makes observation and concentration easier. ... One aspect where cannabis definitely helps is on night vision. I grew up night hunting, so I had plenty of experience before and after. I can definitely see better at night now." claims anonymous patient from "Patient Story - Joe Smith - Glaucoma".

 

 

Habituation

Also see Addiction, Alcoholism, Tolerance, Withdrawal

2003: "The reportedly successful use of cannabis as an alternative to alcohol, SSRI antidepressants, and stimulants (in the treatment of ADHD) warrants serious, large-scale investigation. A necessary first step is for the doctors who are monitoring patients using cannabis for these purposes to agree on basic definitions, diagnostic criteria, etc., and to adopt uniform record-keeping methods. Hergenrather’s observation that half his cannabis-using patients have been able to stop taking pharmaceutical drugs – and others have reduced their intake – suggests a line of inquiry that belongs on a common interview form." claims Fred Gardner from "Which Conditions are Californians Actually Treating With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Jouurnal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

1968: "There is no evidence that this activity [cannabis use] ... is producing in otherwise normal people conditions of dependence or psychosis, requiring medical treatment." claims British Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence in The Wooten Report: Committee on Drug Dependence, Cannabis

1937: "... there is positively no evidence to indicate the abuse of cannabis as a medicinal agent or to show that its medicinal use is leading to the development of cannabis addiction. Cannabis at the present time is slightly used for medicinal purposes, but it would seem worthwhile to maintain its status as a medicinal agent for such purposes as it now has. There is a possibility that a re-study of the drug by modern means may show other advantages to be derived from its medicinal use." claims the AMA Committee on Legislative Activities.

 

 

Hangover

Also see Alcoholism, Headache, Nausea

 

 

Hashish

Includes hash oil, kef

 

 

Headache

Also see Brain, Hangover, Pain

1998: "Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for centuries for both symptomatic and prophylactic treatment of migraine. It was highly esteemed as a headache remedy by the most prominent physicians of the age between 1874 and 1942, remaining part of the Western pharmacopoeia for this indication even into the mid twentieth century. Current ethnobotanical and anecdotal references continue to refer to its efficacy for this malady, while biochemical studies of THC and anandamide have provided a scientific basis for such treatment." – "Cannabis for Migrane Treatment: The Once and Future Prescription?" by Ethan B Russo, 1998.

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... Presently he is taking Tylox [oxycodone and acetaminophen] 1 or 2 per day for severe headaches, Marinol to provide some daily control and Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] and Lithium to control the depression associated with his constant turmoil. There are occasions when he is seen in the office or the emergency room and given shots of Demerol [meperidine] and Phenergren [promethazine]. Even these shots do not give him full relief of his headaches, but do, when things are severe, give him a few hours of peace. The only drug that seems to give William any true felief from pain is that from smoking marijuana. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug. It should be noted that the Marinol only gives him partial and inadequate pain relief." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

Herb World News Online's "Cannabis for migraine"
herbs.org/current/cannabis.html

 

 

Heart

Includes heart attacks, heart disease
Also see
 Cardiovascular

2005: "The active ingredient in cannabis protects arteries against harmful changes that lead to strokes and heart attacks, new research suggests. THC, or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is known to affect the brain and make cannabis-users 'high'. The new research shows that it also has an influence on blood vessels. A study of mice revealed that the compound blocks the process of inflammation, which is largely responsible for the narrowing of arteries. Inflammation combines with fatty deposits to produce obstructive 'plaques', a condition known as atherosclerosis. These can block arteries to the heart, causing angina and heart attacks, or to the brain, leading to strokes. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke in the Western world, accounting for up to half the deaths from both conditions. The scientists, led by François Mach, from Geneva University Hospital in Switzerland, studied a strain of specially bred mice that are susceptible to narrowing of the arteries. They were fed a high-cholesterol diet to make them develop atherosclerotic plaques. Adding THC to their diet caused the growth of the obstructions in their arteries to slow markedly after 11 months. When the mice were given a chemical that blocked the action of THC, their arteries continued to narrow at a fast rate." reports Nigel Hawkes, Times online, Apr 7 2005.

2005: "The active ingredient of cannabis may protect against heart disease and strokes ... If a similar effect can be demonstrated in people, it would bring further ammunition to the camp of those who think that marijuana (or rather its purified derivatives) should be treated seriously as a medicine. Sadly for recreational users, though, the dose of THC required was very specific. Too little or too much and the effect went away. Smoking spliffs is already known to be bad for the heart. The protective effect Dr Steffens has demonstrated is only limited compensation." claims Economist, Apr 7 2005.

2005: "Low doses of the main active ingredient in marijuana slowed the progression of hardening of the arteries in mice, suggesting a hint for developing a new therapy in people. ... The mouse work is presented in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature by Dr. Francois Mach of Geneva University Hospital in Geneva, Switzerland, and colleagues. ... Hardening of the arteries sets the stage for heart attacks." reports Malcolm Ritter, Associated Press, Apr 6 2005.

2000: "Dr. Murray Mittleman of the Harvard School of Public Health and Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ... presented the data at a conference in San Diego of the American Heart Association ... found that the risk of a heart attack is five times higher than usual in the hour after smoking a joint. To put this into perspective, many things can trigger a heart attack, including just climbing out of bed in the morning. The researchers said that for someone in good shape, marijuana is about twice as risky as exercising or having sex. The researchers questioned 3,882 heart attack victims - men and women - at 62 locations across the country about their habits and found that 124 were marijuana users. While pot was uncommon among the elderly heart patients, 13 percent of those under age 50 said they smoke it. Among those questioned, 37 had their heart attacks within a day of using marijuana, including nine within an hour afterward. The researchers calculated that someone's risk of a heart attack is five times higher during the hour after using marijuana. After an hour, the risk falls to twice normal. It soon returns to the usual level." reports Daniel Q. Haney, Associated Press Medical Editor, in "Study Marijuana Raies Heart Risks", March 3, 2000.
Rebuttal: "Mittleman['s] ... nurse/receptionist [was] ... asked about the percentage of tobacco smoking in this relatively small group of pot smokers [37] that had heart attacks, and in the overall group of 3,882 heart attack patients. She told [Masel] that most were tobacco smokers too, but she did not have the percentages ..." claims Ben Masel.

1982: "[there is no evidence that smoking marijuana] exerts a permanently deleterious effect on the normal cardiovascular system." claims Institute of Medicine.

"The 'endogenous' cannabinoid anandamide was shown to lower blood pressure and heart rate through the CB1 receptor. The CB1 antagonist SR141716 was shown to block the blood-pressure-lowering effects of anandamide. The researchers guessed that the CB1 receptors were lowering blood pressure by vasodilation through the sympathetic nervous system." claims Los Angeles Cannabis Resource Center from "Cannabinoids in the Brain".

"[Tashkin] noted that THC, the substance that produces a marijuana high, speeds up the heart rate by 50 percent. At the same time, the amount of oxygen available to the heart is reduced because of the carbon monoxide in the marijuana. He said this combination of increased oxygen demand and reduced oxygen supply could trigger a heart attack," – Associated Press review of Dr Donald P Tashkin's research published in New England Journal of Medicine.

 

 

Hemp

Canadian Hemp Trade Alliance hemptrade.ca
Recipe Section hemptrade.ca/en/public/recipes.ihtml

(Debora) Moore & Hemp Industries of Kansas hempforus.com
Historical data base of "cannabis sativa L hemp" hempforus.com/history.htm
World of Hemp hempforus.com/database.htm

Popular Mechanic's "New Billion Dollar Crop"
jackherer.com/popmech.html, druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/popmech1.htm, digitalhemp.com/eecdrom/TEXT/page1.htm, sky.org/data/kuituhamppu/billdoll.html

Pulp and Paper's "It's time to reconsider hemp" by Jim Young, June 1991
sky.org/data/kuituhamppu/rechemp.html

USDA's "Industrial hemp and other alternative crops for small-scale tobacco producers"
by Karl Stauber, Under Secretary for Research, Education and Economics, USDA
norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=4400, library.wustl.edu/~huestis/pagesave/url.990717.20887.html, welcomehome.org/cohip/PAGES/IND_HEMP/USDA95.HTM, globalhemp.com/Archives/Government_Research/USDA/usda_1995.shtml?rd=6&vo=6

 

 

Herpes

1991: "According to research by Dr. Gerald Lancz, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology at the University of South Florida, there is scientific support for the hemp herpes cure mentioned in the May '91 Letters." reports Richard Doblin, "Hemp Herpes Cure", High Times magazine, Aug 1991, pg 16.

1991: "A while back I wrote you concerning a treatment that I developed for herpes: Mix one part Skunk bud to two parts rubbing alcohol until mixture turns green; apply mixture every three to four hours onto affected area, I have tried this on a couple of people with cold sores, as well as on people with genital herpes. The treatment seems to kill the virus as it comes to the surface, preventing it from multiplying and creating the characteristic blister." claims Anonymous Experimenter, "Hemp Herpes Cure?", High Times magazine, May 1991.

 

 

Immune System

 

Immune System medicine

1989: "One study of marijuana use suggests that daily use for 9 weeks restored initially low numbers of T lymphocytes to normal." claims Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in its report "No evidence for a Role of Alcohol or Other Psychoactive Drugs in Accelerating Immunodeficiency in HIV-1 Positive Individuals", Journal of the American Medical Association, June 16, 1989.

 

Immune System safety

1992: "Despite the fairly large literature that developed during the past 15 years or so, the effect of cannabinoids on the immune system is still unsettled. The evidence has been contradictory and is more supportive of some degree of immunosuppression only when one considers in vitro studies. These have been seriously flawed by the very high concentrations of drug used to produce immunosuppression and by the lack of comparisons with other membrane-active drugs. The closer that experimental studies have been to actual clinical situations, the less compelling has been the evidence. ... The relationship between the use of social drugs and the development of clinical manifestations of AIDS has been of some interest, however. Persons infected with the virus but not diagnosed as AIDS have been told to avoid the use of marijuana and/or alcohol. This advice may be reasonable as a general health measure, but direct evidence that heeding this warning will prevent the ultimate damage to the immune system is totally lacking." claims Leo E Hollister from "Marijuana and Immunity", Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Apr-June 1992, vol 24, pgs 159-163.

1989: "No evidence for a Role of Alcohol or Other Psychoactive Drugs in Accelerating Immunodeficiency in HIV-1 Positive Individuals", Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Journal of the American Medical Association, June 16, 1989.

1987: "Whatever temporary changes marijuana may produce in the immune system, they have not been found to increase the danger of infectious disease or cancer. If there were significant damage, we might expect to find a higher rate of these diseases among young people beginning in the 1960s, when marijuana first became popular. There is no evidence of that." claims Lester A Grinspoon, MD, "Marijuana", The Harvard Medical School Mental Health Letter, Nov 1987, pg 3.

"Studies on certain species of rats using high doses of THC showed observable suppression of the immune system and the actions of 'tumoricidal' cells. This evidence suggests that the wonderful auto-immune-disease-curative powers of THC measured in 1989 ... has a negative side to it - perhaps THC allows cancer and opportunistic infections to spread more easily? A report by the National Toxicology Program failed to support this notion. As described in AIDS Treatment News, the research project tested rats for two years with a steady dose of either THC or placebo. The THC dose was extremely high. The rats on THC lived longer and developed fewer tumors than those on the placebo. This report was not released on schedule and people have suggested it was deliberately suppressed because the results were too shocking." claims Los Angeles Canmnabis Resource Center form "Cannabinoids in the Immune System".

 

 

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Also see Crohn's, Gastrointestinal, Immune System

2005: "Cannabis-based drugs could offer treatment hope to sufferers of inflammatory bowel disease, UK researchers report. Cannabis smokers with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have often claimed that smoking a joint seems to lessen their symptoms. So a group of researchers from Bath University and Bristol University, both in the UK, decided to explore the clinical basis for the claims. 'There is quite a lot of anecdotal evidence that using cannabis seems to reduce the pain and frequency of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis ...' says Karen Wright, a pharmacologist at Bath University. 'Historically, it was smoked in India and China centuries ago for its gastrointestinal properties.' ... To their surprise, the team discovered CB1 cannabinoid receptors – which are known to be present in the brain – in the endothelial cells which line the gut. 'I think they must be involved in repairing the lining of the gut when it is damaged,' Wright says. She deliberately damaged the cells to cause inflammation of the gut lining and then added synthetically produced cannabinoids. 'The gut started to heal: the broken cells were repaired and brought back closer together to mend the tears,' ... Previous studies have shown that CB1 receptors located on the nerve cells in the gut respond to cannabinoids by slowing gut motility, therefore reducing the painful muscle contractions associated with diarrhoea. But Wright and her team also discovered another cannabinoid receptor, CB2, in the guts of IBD sufferers, which was not present in healthy guts. These receptors, which also respond to chemicals in cannabis, appear to be associated with apoptosis – programmed cell death – and may have a role in suppressing the overactive immune system and reducing inflammation by moping up excess cells, she suggests." reports Gaia Vince from "Cannabis may soothe inflamed bowels", New Scientist, Aug 1 2005.

2004: "Cannabis extracts may be well suited to treatment of inflammatory diseases due to their multiple mechanisms of action. THC seemingly alleviates pain, spasm and diarrhoea, while the CBD component presents the likelyhood of immunomodulatory benefits. One recently demonstrated CBD effect is its ability to inhibit TFN-a (tissue necrosis factor-alpha), a proven mechanism of other agents employed to treat inflammatory bowel disease." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "The nonpsychoactive cannabis constiuent cannabidiol is an oral anti-artritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis." by AM Mafait, R Gallily, PF Sumariwalla, AS Malik, E Andreakos, R Mechoulam, et al, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 2000;97(17), pgs 9561-9566.

2004: "Numerous studies in the 1970s indicated that THC slowed intestinal passage of a charcoal meal in rodents. Cannabidiol (CBD) had little effect of its own, but synergized the effects of THC." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "Interaction of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on intestinal motility in mice" by PF Anderson, DM Jackson, GB Chesher, Journal Pharm Pharmacology 1974:26(2), pgs 136-137.

 

 

Ingestion

Includes eating botanical cannabis, swallowing encapsuled synthetic THC
Also see
Beverages, Cooking, Foods, Inhalation, Nausea, Recipes, Stomach, Tetra-Hydro-Cannabinol

 

 

Inhalation

Also see Cancer safety, Ingestion, Lung, Nausea, Smoking, Tetra-Hydro-Cannabinol, Vaporization

1996: 80% of AIDS patients who had used inhaled cannabis preferred it to prescription drugs including synthetic THC, claims B Wesner, "The Medical Marijuana Issue Among PWAs: Reports of Therapeutic Use and Attitudes Toward Legal Reform", Drug Research Unit, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

1993: "This water pipe study is a classic example of the harm reduction approach to drug use. If water pipes really reduce the harm associated with marijuana smoking, non-medical users can be educated about the benefits of water pipes and encouraged to use them whenever possible. Since smoking is one of the main harms associated with the use of marijuana (accidents are another), this simple water pipe study may help lay the groundwork for significantly reducing the harmfulness of marijuana smoke. If US drug policy ever moves to a harm-reduction approach to marijuana, studies such as this one will play an important role in helping users to identify and minimize the health risks of marijuana." claims Dale Gieringer, "Marijuana Water Pipe Study", Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, Vol 4, No 3, Winter 1993-94.

1988: "Marijuana cigarettes in many cases are superior to synthetic THC capsules in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marijuana cigarettes have an important, clear advantage over synthetic THC capsules in that natural marijuana is inhaled and generally takes effect more quickly than the synthetic capsule." claims Drug Enforcement Administration's Chief Administrative Law Judge Francis L Young.

1988: "Patient evaluations have indicated that approximately ninety-three (93) percent of marijuana inhalation treatment episodes are reported to be 'effective' or 'highly effective' when compared to other antiemetics." 78% of 56 patients had no improvement with standard antiemetics, claims Vinciguerra, et al, "Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy", New York State Journal of Medicine, pgs 525-527, Oct 1988.

1983: "We found both marijuana smoking and THC capsules to be effective antiemetics. We found an approximate 23 percent higher success rate among those patients smoking (90%) than among those administered THC capsules (67%). ... We found that the major reason for smoking failure was smoking intolerance; while the major reason for THC capsule failure was nausea and vomiting so severe that the patient could not retain the capsule." claims "Annual Report: Evaluation of Marijuana and Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Treatment of Nausea and/or Vomiting Associated with Cancer Therapy Unresponsive to Conventional Anti-Emetic Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity", Board of Pharmacy, State of Tennessee, July 1983.

1983: "The primary reasons for failure of THC capsules were due to either adverse reaction (6 out of 18) or failure to improve nausea and vomiting (9 out of 18). The primary reason for failure of smoking marijuana were due to smoking intolerance (6 out of 14) or failure to improve the nausea and vomiting (3 out of 14)." claims Michael H Kutner, Evaluation of the Use of Both Marijuana and THC in Cancer Patients for the Rel;ief of Nausea and Vomiting Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy After Failure of Conventional Anti-Emetic Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, prepared for Composite State Board of Medical Examiners, Georgia Department of Health, Jan 20, 1983.

1983: "[Inhaled] Marijuana has been shown to be effective for many cancer chemotherapy patients, safe dosage levels have been established and a dosage regimen which minimizes undesirable side effects has been devised and tested." claims California Research Advisory Panel, Annual Report of the California Research Advisory Panel, vol 14, submitted to the Governor and Legislature.

1981: "74 percent of the cancer patients treated in the program have reported that [inhaled] marijuana is more effective in relieveing their nausea and vomiting than any other drug they have tried." claims California Research Advisory Panel, Annual Report of the California Research Advisory Panel, vol 12, submitted to the Governor and Legislature.

1975: Inhaled cannabis is more successful than synthetic THC in reducing nausea in some cancer patients, claims S E Sallin, N E Zinberg and D Frei, "Antiemetic Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy", New England Journal of Medicine, 293-16, pgs 795-797, 1975.

(Dale) Gieringer's Water Pipe Study
maps.org/news-letters/v06n3/06359mj1.html

 

 

Insomnia

"For THC, the cannabinoid synthesized by cannabis sativa and indica, and andandamide, the cannabinoid synthesized in the central nervous systems of most animals on Earth, the receptor antagonist is called SR141716. SR141716 is like 'anti-marijuana' – it enhances the same memory functions that the natural brain cannabinoid anandamide and THC inhibit through the cannabinoid receptor. SR141716 improves short term memory in rodents by blocking the CB1 cannabinoid receptor from binding to andandamide, not just THC. But anandamide is made by the brain naturally. Why would the brain be making a chemical – andandamide – that seems to inhibit short-term memory? This question is partly answered by the effect of SR141716 on the sleep cycles of rats. SR141716 administered to rats interrupts their sleep cycles, causing a deficit in both short-wave and REM sleep. This research indicates that cannabinoids are important in the brain's regulation of the sleeping process. The cost of improving short-term memory by blocking cannabinoids from the brain is deficient and delayed slow-wave and REM sleep. In studying marijuana, we have learned something important about the brain. Inhibition of short-term memory-related processes occurring ion the hippocampus might be necessary for a healthy sleep cycle." claims Los Angeles Cannabis Resource Center from "Cannabinoids in the brain".

 

 

Isomerization

Also see THC Synthesis

 

 

Legal

Law Websites, Legal Statistics, Legal Progression

 

Law Websites

Also see US Case Law, US Statutory Law

Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics
Drug Law Library cognitiveliberty.org/dll/index.htm
Connecticut Drug Law cognitiveliberty.org/dll/conneticut_drug_laws.htm
Drug Law Library Search Engines cognitiveliberty.org/dll/search.htm
Federal Drug Laws cognitiveliberty.org/dll/federallaw.htm
Penalties for US Drug Offenses cognitiveliberty.org/dll/drugpenalties.htm
State Controlled Subsance Acts cognitiveliberty.org/dll/statelaws.htm
United Kingdom (UK) Drug Law cognitiveliberty.org/dll/england_drug_laws.htm
World Drug Laws cognitiveliberty.org/dll/worldlaws.htm

DEA Marijuana Rescheduling Petition #86-22, Francis L Young
druglibrary.org/olsen/MEDICAL/YOUNG/young.htmlmojo.calyx.net/~olsen/MEDICAL/YOUNG/young.html (2005)

Department of Justice of Canada's Consolidated Statutes
Controlled Drugs and Substances Act canada.justice.gc.ca/STABLE/EN/Laws/Chap/C/C-38.8.html

Erowid Cannabis Vault: Cannabis Legal Status
erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_law.shtml

I Am Cannabian!
Current [Canada] Marijuana Laws iamcannabian.com/laws.php

Michigan Compiled Laws
Driver License Suspension: legislature.mi.gov/law/GetObject.asp?objName=333-7408a
Manufacture, Distribution, Delivery & Possession with Intent: 333.7401 (2) (d) legislature.mi.gov/law/GetObject.asp?objName=333-7401
Paraphernalia: 333.7451 legislature.mi.gov/law/GetObject.asp?objName=333-7451
Possession: 333.7403 (2) (d) legislature.mi.gov/law/GetObject.asp?objName=333-7403
School Property: 333.7410 legislature.mi.gov/law/GetObject.asp?objName=333-7410
Use: 333.7404 (2) (d) legislature.mi.gov/law/GetObject.asp?objName=333-7404

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws' State By State Laws
norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=4516

Rollins v Ulmer (challenging Alaska's medicinal cannabis law "list" and identification cards)
touchngo.com/sp/html/sp-5336.htm, mosquitonet.com/~chuck/alaskalaw/rollinsvsulmer.html, email chuck@mosquitonet.com

United States House of Representatives Office of the Law Revision Counsel
law2.house.gov

United States Code
uscode.house.gov/search/criteria.shtml

US Drug Paraphernalia Law - 21USC Sec 863
law2.house.gov/uscode-cgi/fastweb.exe?getdoc+uscview+t21t25+440

United States v Peter McWilliams, Todd McCormick, et al
mcwilliams.com, petertrial.com (2005)

 

Legal Statistics

Cannabis Arrests – all US and state jurisdictions
2010 – 853,000
2009 – 852,000
2008 – 847,863
2007 – 872,720
2006 – 829,600
2005 – 786,545
2004 – 770,000
2003 – 755,187
2002 – 697,082
2001 – 723,627
2000 – 734,498
1999 – 704,812
1998 – 682,885
1997 – 695,200
1996 – 641,642
1995 – 588,963
1994 – 499,122
1993 – 380,689
1992 – 342,300
1991 – 287,900
1990 – 326,850
1989 – 399,000
1988 – 391,600
1987 – 378,700
1986 – 361,800
1985 – 451,100
1984 – 419,400
1983 – 406,900
1982 – 455,600
1981 – 400,300
1980 – 401,982
1979 – 391,600
1978 – 445,800
1977 – 457,600
1976 – 441,100
1975 – 416,100
1974 – 445,000
1973 – 420,700
1972 – 292,179
1971 – 225,828
1970 – 188,682
1969 – 118,903
1968 – 95,870
1967 – 61,843
1966 – 31,119
1965 – 18,815

"Marijuana Arrests, Availability and Use" oldsite.mpp.org/pdf/surveys_04.pdf

 

Legal Progression

Cannabis law correlation to cannabis use
Also see
Progression

2004: "Another important question about the effects of drug policies concerns the use of other illicit drugs. The 'separation of markets,' in which lawfully regulated cannabis distribution reduces the likelyhood that people seeking cannabis will be drawn into deviant subcultures where 'hard drugs' also are sold is one public health objective of Dutch decriminalization. ... We compared representative samples of experienced cannabis users in similar cities with opposing cannabis policies – Amsterdam, the Netherlands (decriminalization), and San Francisco, Calif (criminalization). We compared age at onset, regular and maximum use, frequency and quantity of use over time, intensity and duration of intoxication, career use patterns, and other drug use. Results: With the exception of higher drug use in San Francisco, we found strong similarities across both cities. We found no evidence to support claims that criminalization reduces use or that decriminalization increases use. Conclusions: Drug policies may have less impact on cannabis use than is currently thought." claims Craig Reinarman, Peter DA. Cohen, Hendrien L Kaal from "The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy: Cannabis in Amsterdam and in San Francisco", American Journal of Public Health, vol 94, no 5, May 2004, pgs 836-842. Also at regulatemarijuana.org/pdf/ajph_050104.pdf

2003: "Other countries with high levels of cannabis use included very prohibitionist France, (17 per cent), Spain (17.3 per cent) and Ireland (17.7 per cent), while in the Netherlands, where is has been available in coffee shops for over 25 years, it was only 11.8 per cent. It is clear that the laws have no effect on the rate of cannabis use, nor does the level of enforcement." claims Richard Cowan from his analysis of "Marijuana Arrests For 2002 Near Record High Despite Feds' War On Terror, FBI Report Reveals", MarijuanaNews.com, Oct 28 2003.

1995: "... the 1976 changes in the Netherlands seem to have been followed by a fall in use of cannabis: from 13% of those aged 17-18 in 1976 to 6% in 1985. Monthly prevalence of cannabis use among Dutch high school students is around 5.4% compared with 29% in the United States. Forbidden fruit may, indeed, be the sweetest." claims British Medical Journal, Dec 1995.

1981: "Decriminalization has had virtually no effect either on the marijuana use or on related attitudes and beliefs about marijuana use among American young people." claims Lloyd Johnston, Patrick O'Malley, Jerald Bachman, "Marijuana Decriminalization: The Impact on Youth, 1975-1980", Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 13, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, MI, 1981.

 

 

Longevity

Includes life expectancy, mortality

2004: "A life of [tobacco] cigarette smoking will be, on average, 10 years shorter than life without it. ... almost half of all persistent [tobacoo] cigarette smokers were killed by their habit, and a quarter died before age 70. ... someone who stops [tobacco] smoking by age 30 has the same average life expectancy as a nonsmoker, and someone who stops at age 50 will lose four, rather than 10, years of life." claims Richard Doll in British Medical Journal, June 22 2004, as reported by Marc Kaufman, Washington Post.

2003: "Although the inhalation of chemical toxins in cannabis smoke has been linked to bronchitis and other respiratory problems, it has not been shown to cause lung cancer or a higher death rate. The most extensive study to date on marijuana and mortality was conducted by investigators at Kaiser Permanente and published in the April 1997 issue of the American Journal of Public Health. It showed no substantial link between regular marijuana smoking and death, but suggested that marijuana prohibition may itself pose a health hazard to the user. The Kaiser team, led by Stephen Sidney, MD, looked at 10 years of mortality statistics for more than 65,000 men and women who received health check-ups at Kaiser’s Oakland and San Francisco hospitals between 1979 and 1985. Patients were divided into groups ranging from those who had never tried marijuana to those who use it currently or regularly. Mortality statistics for all patients were followed until 1991 and analyzed for any association between marijuana and death. The study’s statistical methodology controlled for the use of tobacco and alcohol so that deaths from marijuana smoking could be clearly defined. Researchers found no increase in deaths among the more than 14,000 patients who reported they were marijuana users as compared to those who had never used marijuana. They further noted that the total mortality risks associated with marijuana use were lower than those for tobacco-cigarette smoking for both men and women. Women who used marijuana also had a lower risk of total mortality as compared to those who consumed alcohol regularly. The study noted that marijuana smokers with AIDS did have a significantly higher death rate than non-smokers, but said that their mortality was virtually the same as it was for AIDS patients who didn’t smoke marijuana. Researchers stressed that the links they found between marijuana use and death were associations and not an indication that marijuana was a cause of death.” from "Marijuana Smoking Doesn't Lead to Higher Death Rate", O'Shaughnessy's Jouurnal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

2000: "Marijuana-like drugs eradicated some brain cancers in rats and helped other animals live longer, possibly hinting at a new approach for treating the disease ... The study dealt with gliomas, the most common category of cancer arising in the brain. Gliomas are highly lethal in people despite treatment with drugs, surgery and radiation. The rat study was published in the March issue of the journal Nature Medicine. It was conducted by scientists at the Complutense and Autonoma Universityersities in Madrid, Spain. They injected glioma cells into the brains of rats to produce tumors. Untreated rats died within 18 days. Other rats were treated with drug infusions for seven days through a tube leading to the tumor. Fifteen rats got infusions of THC, the main active component in marijuana. Tumors disappeared in three animals, and nine other rats outlived the untreated ones, surviving up to 35 days. When researchers used a different but similar drug, five of 15 rats became tumor-free and four others outlived untreated animals." – Associated Press, "Dope Ingredient May Fight Cancer", Feb 28, 2000.

1997: "In summary, this study showed little, if any, effect of marijuana use on nonAIDS mortality in men and on total mortality in women. The increased risk of AIDS mortality in male marijuana users probably did not reflect a causal relationship, but most likely represented uncontrolled confounding by male homosexual behavior. The risk of mortality associated with marijuana use was lower than that associated with tobacco cigarette smoking." claims Stephen Sidney MD, Jerome E Bech PhD, Irene S Tekawa MA, Charles P Quesenberry Jr PhD, and Gary D Friedman MD from "Marijuana Use and Mortality", American Journal of Public Health, April, 1997.

1997: "Other tumors were less common in the treated animals than in the controls – except in one case, which the toxicologists believed was due to the fact that the treated animals lived longer, and therefore had more opportunity to develop tumors." reports John S James, "Medical Marijuana: Unpublished Federal Study Found THC- Treated Rats Lived Longer, Had Less Cancer", AIDS Treatment News, Jan 17 1997.

1996: "2-Year Study in Rats ... Survival of all dosed groups was generally significantly greater than that of the controls. ... 2-Year Study in Mice ... Survival of 500 mg/kg males was significantly less than that of the controls; survival of all other groups of males and of all dosed groups of females was similar to that of the controls." – Abstract of "TR-446: Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 1-Trans-Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (CAS No. 1972-08-3) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies)", National Toxicology Program, US Department of Health and Human Services, Nov 1996.

1973: "The price of overuse is paid later in life–cannabis reduces life expectancy from about seventy-five years to seventy." claims Dr W D M Paton in testimony before US Senate Committee on Internal Security.

 

 

Lung

Also see Cancer, Smoking

2012: "Occasional and low cumulative marijuana use was not associated with adverse effects on pulmonary function." from "Association Between Marijuana Exposure and Pulmonary Function Over 20 Years" by Mark J Pletcher, Eric Vittinghoff, Ravi Kalhan, Joshua Richman, Monika Safford, Stephen Sidney, Feng Lin, Stefan Kertesz, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol 307 no 2, Jan 11 2012, pgs 173-181

2003: "Although the inhalation of chemical toxins in cannabis smoke has been linked to bronchitis and other respiratory problems, it has not been shown to cause lung cancer or a higher death rate." – "Marijuana Smoking Doesn't Lead to Higher Death Rate", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

2002: "Smoking pure marijuana is at least as harmful to lungs as smoking tobacco, a report from the British Lung Foundation concludes. And in some key ways, it may be more dangerous. For example, the BLF's review of previous research highlights that just three marijuana joints a day causes the same damage to the lung's airways as 20 cigarettes, mainly because of the way joints are smoked. Individually, cannabis and tobacco produce the same constituents and quantities of chemicals known to be toxic to respiratory tissue, other than nicotine, the report says. But when cannabis and tobacco are smoked together, the health effects are worse. ... Other points in the report include: Tar from cannabis cigarettes contains up to 50 per cent higher concentrations of carcinogens benzathracenes and benzpyrenes than tobacco smoke. ... Lyndon Pugh, editor of pro-cannabis magazine CC Newz, is not impressed by the report: 'These allegations have been made before countless times. Lot of things are dangerous, like driving.' " claims Emma Young, "Cannabis smoking 'more harmful' than tobacco", New Scientist news service, Nov 11 2002.

1999: "Recent reports of molecular and genetic alterations in marijuana users suggested that marijuana smoke might also activate CYP1A1 gene. Dr. Roth investigated this possibility using Hepa-1 cells and found that marijuana tar, and more specifically D9-THC, regulates the induction and function of CYP1A1 gene, an observation that is entirely novel. Transcriptional activation of CYP1A1 by D9-THC may help to explain the relatively high frequency of DNA mutations and mucosal abnormalities that occur in marijuana smokers. The inhalation of marijuana smoke delivers both nanogram concentrations of conventional PAHs and milligram quantities of D9-THC to the lung. Induction of CYP1A1 produced by D9-THC could result in greater activation of smoke-related procarcinogens and higher adduct-related injury. However, it is also possible that inhaled D9-THC competes for the active site of CYP1A1, paradoxically reducing the activation of procarcinogens." claims Dr Michael D Roth from "A Conference Summary on Pulmonary Pathophysiologic and Immune Consequences of Smoked Substance Abuse", National Institute on Drug Abuse.

1998: "I said, 'Do you know of any cases of marijuana-only smokers who had lung cancer?' [Dr Donald P Tashkin] said 'Yes, there is one.' Then he smiled, explaining, 'He was sixteen years old.' We both smiled, knowing a teenager could not possibly have sufficient exposure to marijuana smoke to cause lung cancer–his cancer was clearly due to some other cause." claims Martin Martinez from "Cannabis and Lung Cancer".

1997: "We evaluated the function of alveolar macrophages (AMs) recovered from the lungs of nonsmokers and habitual smokers of either tobacco, marijuana, or crack cocaine. AMs recovered from marijuana smokers were deficient in their ability to phagocytose Staphylococcus aureus (p < 0.01). AMs from marijuana smokers and from cocaine users were also severely limited in their ability to kill both bacteria and tumor cells (p < 0.01). ... AMs are the predominant lung leukocyte and act as the lung's resident phagocytic defense against both bacteria and fungi. They secrete a variety of cytokines capable of regulating their own activity, as well as the activity of other immune effector cells. In addition, AMs are exposed to the highest possible concentrations of inhaled marijuana and cocaine, making them a likely target for drug-related effects. Our findings clearly demonstrate that habitual smoking of either substance significantly impairs the antibacterial and tumoricidal activities of human AMs, as well as, in the case of marijuana, their ability to produce inflammatory cytokines. ... our findings strongly support epidemiologic reports and case studies linking the use of marijuana and cocaine to opportunistic infections, HIV infection, and the progression of AIDS. In addition, marijuana may play a multifactorial role in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract cancers." claims Gayle Cocita Bladwin, Donald P Tashkin, Dawn M Buckley, Alice N Park, Steven M Dubinett, Michael D Roth from "Marijuana and Cocaine Impair Alveolar Macrophage Function and Cytokine Production", American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol 156, No 5, Nov 1997, pgs 1606-1613.

1994: "Some forms of lung irritation may be more pronounced with chronic marijuana smoke, but no signs of cancer were seen seven months after the last dose" claims Dr. William Slikker, Jr, researcher for a 2-1/2 year study of cannabis consumpt ion by youth for the National Center of Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR.

1993: "Marijuana smokers in our study also reported a higher prevalence of upper respiratory tract infections compared with nonsmokers. On the other hand, the duration of marijuana smoking appeared to be inversely related to the risk of outpatient visits for respiratory problems. This result was contrary to our expectation and remains an issue for future research. In our data, long-term marijuana smokers may be the 'survivors' of a selection process in which persons who experienced respiratory symptoms were more likely to quit smoking marijuana early in the process." claims Michael R Polen, Stephen Sidney, Irene S Tekawa, Marianne Sadler, and Gary D Friedman from Health Care Use by Frequent Marijuana Smokers Who Do Not Smoke Tobacco", Western Journal of Medicine #158, June 1993, pgs 596-601. pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/dope/body/healthcare.html, hoboes.com/pub/Prohibition..., web.acsalaska.net/~warmgun/sm405.html

1988: "As of October 1988, no case of lung cancer has ever been attributed solely to marijuana use." claims Dr Donald P Tashkin.

1985: "The result is that there is a four-fold greater burden of tar on the lung from the smoke of a single marijuana joint compared to one cigarette when each type is smoke [sic] the way it's ordinarily smoked,' Tashkin said. Tashkin said he believes this poses a significant cancer risk, although there is no direct evidence that pot smokers actually suffer an unusually high incidence of lung cancer. ... Tashkin said his studies have not found any evidence that pot smoking increases risk of emphysema ..." – Associated Press review of Dr Donald P Tashkin's research published in New England Journal of Medicine.

"Marihuana & lung cancer"
lycaeum.org/~sky/data/mj&cancer.html

"Marijuana And Lung Cancer"
cancer.allgreatwebsites.com/index.php?k=marijuana-and-lung-cancer

 

 

Manic Depression

Includes Bipolar Disorder
Also see
Depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Paxil

2001: "I have smoked weed off and on for 20 years, and now everyday. I find that with it I take less Paxil, and I am able to function better.", Manic-depression/obsessive compulsive disorder patient, Mar 11, 2001.

1998: "The authors present case histories indicating that a number of patients find cannabis (marihuana) useful in the treatment of their bipolar disorder. Some used it to treat mania, depression, or both. They stated that it was more effective than conventional drugs, or helped relieve the side effects of those drugs. One woman found that cannabis curbed her manic rages; she and her husband have worked to make it legally available as a medicine. Others described the use of cannabis as a supplement to lithium (allowing reduced consumption) or for relief of lithium's side effects." – "The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research" by Lester Grinspoon, MD and James B Bakalar, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, vol 30 (2), Apr-June 1998, pgs 171-177.
rxmarihuana.com/mood_stablizer.htm

 

 

Medical Associations

also see AIDS Action Council, Alaska Medical Association, Alaska Nurses Association, American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of HIV Medicine, American Cancer Society, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Medical Students Association, American Nurses Association, American Preventive Medical Association, American Public Health Association, American Social Health Association, American Society of Addiction Medicine, Arthritis Research Campaign, Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, Australian Medical Association, Belgian Health Ministry, British Medical Association, British Medical Journal, California Academy of Family Physicians, California Medical Association, California Nurses Association, California Pharmacists Association, California Society of Addiction Medicine, Canadian AIDS Society, Canadian Medical Association, Canadian Medical Journal, Colorado Nurses Association, Congress of Nursing Practice, Council of Health Organizations, DC Medical Society, Florida Medical Association, Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, Hawaii Nurses Association, Health Canada, Illinois Nurses Association, Institute Of Medicine, Lymphoma Foundation of America, Maine AIDS Alliance, Medical Society of the State of New York, Medical Association of Jamaica, Mississippi Nurses Association, Multiple Sclerosis California Action Network, Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada, Multiple Sclerosis Society of United Kingdon, National Academy of Sciences' Institute Of Medicine, National Association for Mental Health, National Association for Public Health Policy, National Association of People With AIDS, National Institutes of Health, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, National Nurses Society on Addictions, Netherlands Ministry of Health, New England Journal of Medicine, New Jersey State Nurses Association, New Mexico Medical Society, New Mexico Nurses Association, New York County Medical Society, New York State Nurses Association, North Carolina Nurses Association, Northern New England Psychiatric Society, Physicians Association for AIDS Care, Physicians for Social Responsibility, Rhode Island Medical Society, Rhode Island State Nurses Association, Southern California Psychiatric Society, Stichting Institute of Medical Marijuana, Texas Medical Association, Vermont Medical Marijuana Study Committee, Vermont Medical Society, Virginia Nurses Association, Virginia Nurses Society on Addictions, Williams MS Foundation, Wisconsin Nurses Association, Wisconsin Public Health Association, Wisconsin State Medical Society

1997: "American Medical Association and most other professional medical bodies do not consider marijuana a safe or effective medicine. Other medical organizations which oppose the use of smoked marijuana in treatment include the American Cancer Society, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the National Multiple Sclerosis Association [sic], the National Eye Institute, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the California Medical Association." claims "Marijuana: Myths and Truth", US Office of National Drug Control Policy. (see American Cancer Society, American Medical Association, California Medical Association, Patients Out of Time's Rebuttal)

1997: "... American Glaucoma Society and the American Academy of Ophthalmology have both rejected marijuana has [sic] a treatment for glaucoma. Other major medical and health organizations have concluded that smoking marijuana is not safe and effective medicine. These organizations include the American Medical Association, the International Federation of Multiple Sclerosis, the American Cancer Society, and the National Cancer Institute." claims "Executive Summary: Anti-legalization Issues", US Drug Enforcement Administration. (see American Cancer Society, American Medical Association)

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws' "Detailed Reference: Health Organizations Supporting Immediate Legal Access to Medical Marijuana"
natlnorml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=3390

Patients Out of Time's "Organizations Supporting Access to Therapeutic Cannabis"
medicalcannabis.com/PDF/Grouplist.pdf

 

AIDS Action Council

1996: "AIDS Action Council supports the elimination of federal restrictions that bar doctors from prescribing marijuana for medical use by individuals with HIV/AIDS. ... AIDS Action Council supports reopening the U.S. Public Health Service's Investigational New Drug Compassionate Access program to provide access to medical-use marijuana for greater numbers of qualified patients." – "Resolution in Support of Access to Medical-Use Marijuana," adopted by the Public Policy Committee of AIDS Action Council, Nov 15 1996.

 

Alaska Medical Association (AKMA)

1972: Alaska Medical Association supports removal of penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

Alaska Nurses Association (AKNA)

1998: "The Alaska Nurses Association supports the passage of Ballot Measure #8 [which] ... allow[s] patients to use marijuana as a medicine if they have a debilitating disease and an authorization from their doctor." – ANA Resolution, Sept 1998.

 

American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry (AAAP)

2000: AAAP supports therapeutic cannabis research.

 

American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)

1996: "The American Academy of Family Physicians [supports] the use of marijuana ... under medical supervision and control for specific medical indications." – 1996-1997 AAFP Reference Manual - Selected Policies on Health Issues.

1995: AAFP supports rescheduling of cannabis.

1989: AAFP supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

1977: AAFP supports therapeutic cannabis research and removal of criminal penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

American Academy of HIV Medicine

American Academy of HIV Medicine supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

American Cancer Society (ACS)

1997: "[California Senate Bill] 535 focuses on medical marijuana research. [The] American Cancer Society ... supports S.B. 535 because it is consistent with our long-held position of supporting research of any agent or technique for which there may be evidence of a therapeutic advantage." in a letter to California State Senator John Vasconcellos, July 24 1997.

 

American College of Physicians (ACP)

2008: "We felt the time had come to speak up about this. We'd like to clear up the uncertainty and anxiety of patients and physicians over this drug." states American College of Physicians Pres David Dale.

2008: American College of Physicians supports therapeutic cannabis research, rescheduling of cannabis and removal of criminal penalties for therapeutic cannabis use, approved by ACP's governing board of regents and published Feb 14 2008 in a 13 page declaration. naturalnews.com/023172.html

 

American Medical Association (AMA)

2009: AMA "urges that marijuana's status as a federal Schedule I controlled substance be reviewed with the goal of facilitating the conduct of clinical research and development of cannabinoid-based medicines, and alternate delivery methods."

1997: AMA's House of Delegates votes to adopt a report that recognizes the existence of scientific clinical data showing cannabis' medical value, urges doctors and patients not be punished for discussing cannabis as a treatment option, and urges the United States government to expedite medicinal cannabis research.

1997: "The American Medical Association 'states in view of the need for further research, a policy of discouragement be strongly advocated' toward prescribing marijuana, the group said in a policy statement." claims David Wahlberg, "Rise in teen marijuana use is focus of forums" by Wahlberg, Ann Arbor News, Feb 17, 1997.

1995: "We are not asking readers for immediate agreement with our affirmation that marijuana is medically useful, but we hope they will do more to encourage open and legal exploration of its potential." – an editorial, Journal of the American Medical Association, 1995.

1989: "One study of marijuana use suggests that daily use for 9 weeks restored initially low numbers of T lymphocytes to normal." claims Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in its report "No evidence for a Role of Alcohol or Other Psychoactive Drugs in Accelerating Immunodeficiency in HIV-1 Positive Individuals", Journal of the American Medical Association, June 16, 1989.

1989: "Large doses may result in panicky states, fear of death, and illusions. Rarely, true psychosis (loss of contact with reality) occurs, producing paranoid delusions, confusion, and other symptoms. These symptoms usually disappear within several days if triggered by the drug, which may merely be acting on an underlying illness. A more permanent state of apathy and loss of concern–the amotivational syndrome–has been attributed to prolonged, regular use. There is evidence that regular users of marijuana can become physically dependent on its effects. Whether the drug causes brain or other physical damage is much debated." claims American Medical Association Home Medical Encyclopedia, published by Reader's Digest, 1989.

1981: "The AMA recommend that adequate and well-controlled studies of smoked marijuana be conducted in patients who have serious conditions for which preclinical, anecdotal, or controlled evidence suggests possible efficacy in including AIDS wasting syndrome, sever acute or delayed emesis induced by chemotherapy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, dystonia, and neuropathic pain." – "Marijuana: Its Health Hazards and Therapeutic Potential", AMA's Council on Scientific Affairs, Journal of American Medical Association, vol 246, pg 1823.

1977: AMA supports removal of penalties for therapeutric cannabis use.

1961: Joint Committee of the American Bar Association and the AMA on Narcotic Drugs publishes report Drug Addiction: Crime or Disease? Interim and Final Reports .

1937: "... there is positively no evidence to indicate the abuse of cannabis as a medicinal agent or to show that its medicinal use is leading to the development of cannabis addiction. Cannabis at the present time is slightly used for medicinal purposes, but it would seem worthwhile to maintain its status as a medicinal agent for such purposes as it now has. There is a possibility that a re-study of the drug by modern means may show other advantages to be derived from its medicinal use." claims the AMA Committee on Legislative Activities.

 

American Medical Students Association (AMSA)

1993: "The American Medical Student Association strongly urges the United States Government ... to meet the treatment needs of currently ill Americans by restoring the Compassionate IND program for medical marijuana, and ... reschedul[ing] marijuana to Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act, and ... end[ing] the medical prohibition against marijuana."  AMSA House of Delegates Resolution #12, March 1993.

 

American Nurses Association (ANA)

2003: "The American Nurses Association will: ... Support the right of patients to have safe access to therapeutic marijuana/cannabis under appropriate prescriber supervision. Support the ability of health care providers to discuss and/or recommend the medicinal use of marijuana without the threat of intimidation or penalization. Support legislation to remove criminal penalties including arrest and imprisonment for bona fide patients and prescribers of therapeutic marijuana/cannabis." – ANA Resolution, June 2003.

 

American Preventive Medical Association (APMA)

1997: "Marijuana should be available for appropriate medicinal purposes, when such use is in accordance with state law, and that physicians who recommend and prescribe marijuana for medicinal purposes in states where such use is legal, should not be censured, harassed, prosecuted or otherwise penalized by the federal government."  form "Medicinal Use of Marijuana" policy statement, Dec 8 1997.

1995: APMA supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

American Public Health Association (APHA)

1995: APHA "... encourages research of the therapeutic properties of various cannabinoids and combinations of cannabinoids, and ... urges the Administration and Congress to move expeditiously to make cannabis available as a legal medicine." Resolution #9513: "Access to Therapeutic Marijuana/Cannabis", Nov 1995.

1971: APHA supports removal of penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

American Social Health Association (ASHA)

1974: ASHA supports removal of penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)

2000: ASAM supports therapeutic cannabis research.

1997: "Approved medical uses for marijuana or [THC] for treatment of glaucoma, illnesses associated with wasting such as AIDS, the emesis associated with chemotherapy, or other uses should be carefully controlled. The drug should be administered only under the supervision of a knowledgeable physician." – "Statement on Marijuana," passed by ASAM Board of Directors, Apr 16 1997

 

Arthritis Research Campaign (ARC)

2004: "[Cannabis is] not going to cure the disease, but it will do a lot to allieviate the pain and suffering of people with rheumatoid arthritis. Cannabis is probably less harmful than other available painkillers. This idea that people with rheumatoid arthritis will be sitting around smoking joints and getting high is quite wrong; cannabis-based pain killers should be taken very seriously." – ARC spokeswoman in "Cannabis drug cuts arthritis pain", BBC News, June 9 2004.

2001: "We think people who use cannabis to relieve the pain of arthritis should be able to do so." – ARC spokeswoman in "Medicinal cannabis set to be legalised", BBC News, Oct 23 2001.

2001: "The Arthritis Research Campaign has welcomed the Home Secretary's announcement that cannabis may be legalised for medicinal use. ... A spokeswoman for the ARC said Mr Blunkett's announcement was good news for people who risked imprisonment by using cannabis to relieve the pain of their arthritis. Scientists at the ARC's Kennedy Institute in west London have shown that cannabidiol - a natural constituent of cannabis that has no mind-altering effects in its purified form - can ease the effects of collagen-induced arthritis in mice; a disease which resembles human rheumatoid arthritis." – "ARC welcomes easing of cannabis laws", Aug 2001.

 

Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC)

1999: ANAC supports access to therapeutic cannabis and removal of penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

Australian Medical Association (New South Wales) (AMANSW)

1999: "The AMA (NSW) … encourage[s] the … Carr Government to introduce exemptions to current cannabis laws, which would allow the use of the currently prohibited drug, in specific medical cases to alleviate patient suffering and facilitate research." – "New Cannabis Exemption Laws Needed for Medical Use", AMANSW press release, Sept 30 1999.

 

Belgian Health Ministry

1999: "The AMA (NSW) … encourage[s] the … Carr Government to introduce exemptions to current cannabis laws, which would allow the use of the currently prohibited drug, in specific medical cases to alleviate patient suffering and facilitate research." – "New Cannabis Exemption Laws Needed for Medical Use", AMANSW press release, Sept 30 1999.

 

British Medical Association (BMA)

1999: BMA's Scottish Committee for Public Health recommends removing penalties for recreational use of cannabis. "We want to encourage public debate on this issue and examine the evidence, rather than [have] people leaping to prejudice. ... I think more than half the population would support legalization if you laid out the evidence." claims committee chairman Dr. George Venters.

1997: "Present evidence indicates that [cannabinoids] are remarkably safe drugs, with a side-effects profile superior to many drugs used for the same indications. ... [The BMA] will urge the government to consider changing the Misuse of Drugs Act to allow the prescription of cannabinoids to patients with certain conditions causing distress that are not adequately controlled by existing treatments." – BMA report "Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis", Nov 1997.

 

British Medical Journal (BMJ)

1998: "The role of cannabinoids in modern therapeutics remains uncertain, but the evidence … shows that it would be irrational not to explore it. The active components of a plant which has been prized as a medicine for thousands of years should not be discarded lightly, and certainly not through political expediency or as a casualty of the war on drugs." – BMJ editorial, Apr 4 1998.

 

California Academy of Family Physicians (CAFP)

1996: CAFP supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

1994: CAFP "... supports efforts to expedite access to cannabinoids for use under the direction of a physician." adopted by CAFP's Congress of Delegates, Feb 1994.

 

California Medical Association (CMA)

2009: "CMA considers the criminalization of marijuana to be a failed public health policy, ... and encourage[s] ... debate and education regarding the health aspects of changing current policy regarding cannabis use." – "California Medical Association Says Pot Prohibition Is A 'Failed Public Health Policy' ", Nov 19 2009
norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=8023, lacmanet.org/downloads/lacma_2009_cma-hod_resolutions_final.pdf

1998: "Due to the lack of scientific justification for Schedule I classification of marijuana and the consequent virtual standstill in research on its medical benefits or harm, CMA's Board of Trustees last week voted to support efforts to reschedule marijuana. In addition, the Board supported efforts to obtain federal approval for a safe, reliable source of marijuana in California for research. Reacting to the hazardous and completely uncontrolled distribution of marijuana for medical use through buyers clubs and street sources, the Board also supported federal control over distribution for medical use in California through closely regulated sources." reports CMA Info, May 21 1998.

1997: "The CMA urge that carefully designed, controlled clinical trials of the effectiveness of inhaled marijuana for medical indications be allowed to proceed immediately. ... The CMA immediately initiate efforts at the fed eral level to facilitate the availability of inhaled marijuana for use in conducting clinical research to determine the medical efficacy of marijuana." – "Medical Marijuana", CMA Resolution #107a-97, adopted April 1997.

1994: CMA supports access to therapeutic cannabs.

 

California Nurses Association (CNA)

1995: "The California Nurses Association supports AB (Assembly Bill) 1529 which would eliminate California's prohibition against possessing marijuana or growing marijuana for individuals using marijuana for medical purposes. ... This measure is a compassionate alternative for patients ... to obtain relief." CNA President Kurt Laumann, RN, letter to Gov Pete Wilson, Sept 21 1995.

 

California Pharmacists Association (CPA)

1997: CPA "support pharmacy participation in the legal distribution of medical marijuana.", from Associated Press Financial News, May 5 (or 26?) 1997.

 

California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM)

1997: "CSAM supports controlled studies of the medical usefulness of marijuana, including all routes of administration, and especially supports studies on the therapeutic effects of the essential ingredients ... of cannabis s ativa. ... CSAM urges the DEA to remove cannabis from Schedule I and move it to an appropriate Schedule, below Schedule I as determined by what is known about its therapeutic benefit." – "Position on Medical Use of Marijuana in California", California Society of Addicition Medicine News, Spring 1997.

 

Canadian AIDS Society (CAS)

2004: "The Canadian AIDS Society's Board of Directors believes that people living with HIV/AIDS should have access to cannabis for therapeutic purposes in the treatment of HIV/AIDS through a compassionate framework. ... [We] favor a controlled legalization system for cannabis in Canada, where the production, distribution and consumption are regulated, designated cannabis distribution centres are established and recognized, and appropriate prevention messages and harm reduction strategies are developed." adopted by the CAS' Board of Directors, May 20 2004.

 

Canadian Medical Association (CMA)

2001: Canadian Medical Association supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

Canadian Medical Journal (CMJ)

2001: Canadian Medical Journal supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

Colorado Nurses Association (CNA)

1995: "The Colorado Nurses Association recognize[s] the therapeutic use of cannabis [and] support efforts to end federal policies which prohibit or unnecessarily restrict marijuana's legal availability for legitimate health care uses. ... Marijuana must be placed in a less restrictive Schedule and made available to patients who may benefit from its use." – CNA 1995 Convention Directory and Book of Reports, pg 28.

 

Congress of Nursing Practice (CNP)

1996: "The Congress of Nursing Practice ... support education for RN's regarding current evidence based therapeutic uses of cannabis, [and] support investigation of therapeutic efficacy of cannabis in controlled trials." – Motion passed May 31 1996.

 

Connecticut Nurses Association (CNA)

2004: "[P]atients [should] have safe access to therapeutic marijuana/cannabis under appropriate prescriber supervision." CNA Resolution, Oct 2004.

 

Council of Health Organizations (CHO)

1971: Council of Health Organizations supports removal of criminal penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

District of Columbia Medical Society (DCMS)

1973: DCMS supports removal of penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

Florida Medical Association (FMA)

1997: "Obviously, it should be possible to prescribe [cannabis.] For a doctor, that could be a real benefit." FMA Resolution #97-61, June 1997.

 

Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA)

1995: GLMA "support ... the authorization and implementation of clinical trials of marijuana for various aspects of AIDS treatment." – Gay and Lesbian Medical Association Policy Statement #066-95-104, adopted May 1995.

 

Hawaii Nurses Association (HNA)

1999: HNA "... support legislation to remove state level criminal penalties for both bona fide medical marijuana patients and their healthcare providers." HNA Resolution adopted Oct 21, 1999.

 

Health Canada

1997: "There is no problem, basically, with marijuana as a medicine. ... Marijuana is no different than morphine, no different than codeine, no different than Aspirin." claims Health Canada spokesman Dann Michols, Ottawa Citizen, Dec 19 1997.

 

Illinios Nurse Association (INA)

2004: "It is the position of the Illinois Nurses Association to: Support the right of patients to have safe access to therapeutic cannabis under appropriate prescriber supervision; ... [to] support legislation to remove criminal penalties including arrest and imprisonment for bonafide patients and prescribers of therapeutic cannabis; [and to] support federal and state legislation to include cannabis classification as a Schedule III [non-prohibited] drug." – INA Position Statement, Dec 2004.

 

Lymphoma Foundation of America (LFA)

1997: "Be it resolved that this organization urges Congress and the President to enact legislation to reschedule marijuana to allow doctors to prescribe smokable marijuana to patients in need; and, Be it further resolved that this organization urges the US Public Health Service to allow limited access to medicinal marijuana by promptly reopening the Investigational New Drug compassionate access program to new applicants."  resolution approved by Lymphoma Foundation Pres Belita Cowan, Jan 20 1997.

 

Maine AIDS Alliance (MAA)

1997: Maine AIDS Alliance supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

Medical Association of Jamaica (MAJ)

2001: Medical Association of Jamaica supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

Medical Society of the State of New York (MSSNY)

2004: "Assembly Bill 5796A ... would allow certain patients ... to use marijuana to treat a serious condition that is defined as a life-threatening condition or a condition associated with or a complication of such a condition or its treatment. ... The Medical Society believes that this legislation would provide physicians, in consultation with their patient, another treatment option for those patients who are facing a life-threatening condition." – MSSNY e-news, May 7 2004.

 

Mississippi Nurses Association (MNA)

1995: "The Mississippi Nurses Association support all reasonable efforts to end federal policies which prohibit or unnecessarily restrict marijuana's legal availability for legitimate medical uses; and be it Resolved that the Mississippi Nurses Association provide education to the nurses of Mississippi about the therapeutic use of marijuana and federal prohibition of its use; and be it Resolved that the Virginia Nurses Association encourage other health care provider organizations to supp ort medical access to marijuana." Resolution for Marijuana Access for Therapeutic Use, adopted by the MNA House of Delegates, Oct 27 1995.

 

Multiple Sclerosis California Action Network (MSCAN)

1996: MSCAN supports rescheduling of cannabis, in Government Issues Action Report, Jan-Feb 1996, pg 2.

 

Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada (MSSC)

2001: "The MS Society of Canada welcomes Health Canada¹s initiative providing a more compassionate system of possession and production for individuals who feel they may benefit from the use of marijuana for medical purposes.", from MS Society Viewpoint, July 2001.

 

Multiple Sclerosis Society of United Kingdon (MSSUK)

2003: "People with MS have claimed that [marijuana] has helped them to relieve a number of the symptoms of MS including pain, stiffness and bladder problems. ... We urge the courts to deal sympathetically with people with MS who are charged with cannabis use when seeking relief from their symptoms." – "Use of cannabis for alleviation of MS symptoms," adopted Aug 2003.

 

National Academy of Sciences' Institute Of Medicine (IOM)

1999: "Scientific data indicate the potential therapeutic value of cannabinoid drugs, primarily THC, for pain relief, control of nausea and vomiting, and appetite stimulation. … For certain patients, such as the terminally ill or those with debilitating symptoms, the long-term risks [associated with smoking] are not of great concern. … [Therefore,] clinical trials of marijuana for medical purposes should be conducted. … There are patients with debilitating symptoms for whom smoked marijuana might provide relief. … Except for the harms associated with smoking, the adverse effects of marijuana use are within the range of effects tolerated for other medications." – "Marijuana as Medicine: Assessing the Science Base," National Academy Press, 1999.

1982: Institute Of Medicine supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

National Association for Mental Health (NAMH)

1972: NAMH supports removal of penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

National Association for Public Health Policy (NAPHP)

1998: "We … recommend the following … actions: The federal government should re-classify marijuana … out of the Schedule 1 category and allow their prescription where medically appropriate." adopted Nov 15 1998.

 

National Association of People With AIDS

1992: National Association of People With AIDS supports therapeutic cannabis research, rescheduling of cannabis and reinstatement of cannabis into the IND compassionate access program.

 

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

1997: "Marijuana looks promising enough to recommend that there be new controlled studies done. The indications in which varying levels of interest was expressed are the following: appetite stimulation/cachexia, nausea and vomiting following anticancer therapy, neurological and movement disorders, analgesia, [and] glaucoma. Accordingly, the NIH should consider relevant administrative mechanisms to facilitate grant applications in each of these areas. Whether or not the NIH is the primary source of grant support for a proposed bona fide clinical research study, if that study meets U.S. regulatory standards ... protocol approval, ... the study should receive marijuana." – "Report to the Director", Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana, Aug 1997.

 

National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS)

2006: "In what could be the first sign of a course reversal by the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, which has scoffed at medical marijuana in the past, the group announced this week that it will fund a study on the effect of marijuana on spasticity in MS patients. While the Society acknowledges that up to 15% of MS patients use medical marijuana, funding the new study is the first time the group has indicated it is hearing what those patients are saying. The society currently rejects the use of marijuana to relieve MS symptoms. As it notes on its web site, 'Based on the studies to date, it is the opinion of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society's Medical Advisory Board that there are currently insufficient data to recommend marijuana or its derivatives as a treatment for MS. Long-term use of marijuana may be associated with significant serious side effects. In addition, other well-tested, FDA-approved drugs are available, such as baclofen and tizanidine, to reduce spasticity in MS.' The Society said it was moved by inconclusive earlier studies on the effect of marijuana on MS spasticity to fund a one using a new measure. The study is not a new one; the group is taking over funding for ongoing research at the University of California Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research, which lost funding when the investigation was only partially completed. The study, by Dr. Mark Agius and fellow researchers at the University of California-Davis School of Medicine, is scheduled for completion in March 2008." reports "National Multiple Scleroisis Society to Fund Study", Drug War Chronilce, June 23 2006.

 

National Nurses Society on Addictions (NNSA)

1995: "National Nurses Society on Addictions urges the federal government to remove marijuana from the Schedule 1 category immediately and make it available for physicians to prescribe. NNSA urges the American Nurses' Association and other health care professional organizations to support patient access to this medicine. NNSA supports ongoing human research to determine alternate active methods of administration to minimize health risks. NNSA supports research regarding the various cannabinoids and combinations thereof to determine the greatest therapeutic potential." – "National Nurses Society on Addictions' Position Paper: Access to Therapeutic Cannabis", May 1 1995.

 

Netherlands Ministry of Health

2003: "Cannabis has a beneficial effect for many patients. From September 1, 2003 pharmacies can provide medicinal cannabis to patients with a prescription from a doctor." – Statement of the Health Ministry, reported by Reuters, Sept 1 2003.

 

New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM)

1997: "Federal authorities should rescind their prohibition of the medical use of marijuana for seriously ill patients and allow physicians to decide which patients to treat. The government should change marijuana's status from that of a Schedule I drug ... to that of a Schedule II drug ... and regulate it accordingly." – editorial by NEJM editor Dr Jerome Kassirer, Jan 30 1997

 

New Jersey State Nurses Association (NJSNA)

2002: "The NJSNA recognizes the therapeutic value and safety of medically recommended marijuana and ... supports legal access to medically recommended marijuana for patients in New Jersey who are under the care of a licensed health care provider." – NJSNA press release, Mar 25 2002.

 

New Mexico Medical Society (NMMS)

2002: “The New Mexico Medical Society ... supports the medical use of marijuana for patients suffering from cancer, AIDS, and other serious or terminal conditions.” Letter from NMMS Pres Allan Haynes, Jan 21 2002.

 

New Mexico Nurses Association (NMNA)

1997: "NMNA has voted to endorse the concept of allowing for the therapeutic use of marijuana in a variety of disease states ... when conventional treatments are ineffective." in a letter from NMNA Pres Ginny Guido to Bryan A Krumm, RN, BSN, July 28 1997.

 

New York County Medical Society (NYCMS)

2004: "The definitive review of scientific studies ... found medical benefits related to pain relief, control of nausea and vomiting, and appetite stimulation. ... While there are a variety of ways of supplying marijuana for medical use, serious consideration should be given to the 1997 recommendation ... that the FDA reclassify marijuana from Schedule I and provide a consistent, safe supply." – testimony of Zebulon Taintor, representing the New York County Medical Society before the New York City Health Committee, Feb 23 2004.

 

New York State Nurses Association (NYSNA)

1995: "Marijuana has been found to be effective in the treatment of glaucoma by reducing intraocular pressure and in reducing nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Marijuana has also been effective in stimulating the appetite of AIDS patients suffering from the wasting syndrome, controlling spasticity in spinal cord injury patients, and in controlling seizures for persons suffering from epilepsy and for persons with multiple sclerosis. ...The NYSNA Peer Assistance Committee agrees with the intent and content of the resolution 'Legalizing Marijuana for Medical Purposes.'" – "Position Statement on Medicinal Marijuana," passed by the NYSNA Board of Directors, June 7 1995.

 

North Carolina Nurses Association (NCNA)

1996: "NCNA urges the Administration and Congress to make cannabis available as a legal medicine where shown to be safe and effective and to immediately allow access to therapeutic cannabis through the Investigational New Drug Program." – "Position Statement on Therapeutic Use of Cannabis," adopted by the NCNA, Oct 15 1996.

 

Northern New England Psychiatric Society (NNEPS)

NNEPS supports therapeutic cannabis research and removal of penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

Physicians Association for AIDS Care (PAAC)

1994: "... physicians are constantly asked by patients whether or not marijuana can be used as an adequate or more effective substitute for dronabinol. As a professional association, we have in various educational forums addressed this issue by explaining the scientific data upon which the FDA based its approval of dronabinol. We have also outlined our concerns over anecdotal side effects of marijuana. However, such warnings to patients should be based on scientific evidence rather than anecdotal experience. ... Dr. Abrams' study could provide the data that the medical community needs relative to this subject, and for that reason PAAC requests that your office support the study with the provision of the marijuana requested for the study." - Gordon Nary, Executive Director, in a letter to National Institute on Drug Abuse, Oct. 3, 1994.

 

Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR)

1998: Physicians for Social Responsibility supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

Rhode Island Medical Society (RIMS)

"The Medical Society supports H-7588, it is consistent with our belief that there is sufficient evidence for us to support any physician-patient relationship that believes the use of marijuana will be beneficial to the patient." – Steve DeTroy, Director of Government and Public Affairs.

 

Rhode Island State Nurses Association (RISNA)

2004: RISNA supports "legislation to remove criminal penalties including arrest and imprisonment for bona fide patients and prescribers of therapeutic marijuana/cannabis."

 

San Francisco Medical Society (SFMS)

1996: "The SFMS takes a support position on the California Medical Marijuana Initiative." – Motion passed by SFMS Board of Directors, Aug 8 1996.

 

Southern California Psychiatric Society (SCPS)

1979: SCPS supports removal of penalties for therapeutic cannabis use.

 

Stichting Institute of Medical Marijuana

1993: Stichting Institute of Medical Marijuana supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

Texas Medical Association (TMA)

2004: "The Texas Medical Association supports (1) the physician's right to discuss with his/her patients any and all possible treatment options related to the patients' health and clinical care, including the use of marijuana, without the threat to the physician or patient of regulatory, disciplinary, or criminal sanctions; and (2) further well-controlled studies of the use of marijuana with seriously ill patients who may benefit from such alternative treatment." – Resolution of the TMA Council on Scientific Affairs, adopted Apr 29 2004.

 

Vermont Medical Marijuana Study Committee

2002: "There is medical value in using marijuana to ameliorate some symptoms associated with severe illnesses and the treatment thereof. ... Marijuana is misclassified as a [federal] Schedule I drug and should be reclassified to permit physicians to prescribe and pharmacies to dispense medical marijuana." – "Report of the Medical Marijuana Study Committee," preliminary report to the Vermont General Assembly, Dec 2002

 

Vermont Medical Society (VMS)

2003: "VMS current policy on medical marijuana focuses on the need for additional scientific research, the need for free and open discussion between physicians and patients and the need to exercise caution in view of federal criminal penalties for prescribing marijuana or aiding or abetting patients to violate federal law." – VMS Legislative Bulletin, Feb 10 2003.

 

Virginia Nurses Association (VNA)

2005: VNA supports legalization of medicinal cannabis, in a Sept 3 VNA resolution.
ccguide.org.uk/news/shownewsarticle.php?articleid=10274

1994: "The Virginia Nurses Association support all reasonable efforts to end federal policies which prohibit or unnecessarily restrict marijuana's legal availability for legitimate medical uses; and be it Resolved that the Virginia Nurses Association provide education to the nurses of Virginia on the therapeutic use of marijuana and federal prohibition of its use; and be it Resolved that the Virginia Nurses Association encourage other health care provider organizations to supp ort medical access to marijuana." – Resolution passed by the VNA Delegate Assembly, Oct 7 1994.

 

Virginia Nurses Society on Addictions (VNSA)

1993: VNSA supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

(Montel) Williams MS Foundation

"Marijuana has helped my symptoms so much that I have become an advocate for the legalization of medical marijuana for qualified patients like me – those suffering from debilitating and/or devastatingly painful diseases. ... Because I do not condone breaking any law, I would like to see all 50 states and the federal government decriminalize medical marijuana. I would also like to see more research into its effects on MS – for the treatment of pain and spasticity." – "Taking Action: Montel on Medical Marijuana & MS Treatment" press release.

 

Wisconsin Nurses Association (WNA)

1999: "The Wisconsin Nurses Association urges the Governor of Wisconsin and the Wisconsin Legislature to move expeditiously to make cannabis available as a legally prescribed medicine where shown to be safe and effective." – Resolution adopted by WNA, Oct 29 1999.

 

Wisconsin Public Health Association (WPHA)

1999: WPHA supports access to therapeutic cannabis.

 

Wisconsin State Medical Society (WSMS)

2001: "The SMS urges the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to implement administrative procedures to facilitate grant applications and the conduct of well-designed clinical research into the medical utility of marijuana. …The SMS believes that the NIH should use its resources and influence to support the development of a smoke-free inhaled delivery system for marijuana." – SMS Policy Compendium 2000-2001 - Alternative Medicine.

1998: WSMS supports therapeutic cannabis research.

 

 

Medicine

Also see Cannabis Freedom Activist Network's Medicinal Cannabis, Addiction, AIDS, Alcoholism, Alzheimer's, ALS, Anorexia, Anxiety, Appetite, Artherosclerosis, Arthritis, Asthma, Blood, Bowels, Brain, Cancer, Cannibidiol, Cannabinoids, Cardiovascular, Cerebral Palsy, Cerebrovascular Ischemia, Chemotherapy, CNS, Colitis, Comparative Pharmacology, Crohn's, Depression, Diabetes, Dialysis, Epilepsy, Fibromyaliga, Gastrointestinal, Glaucoma, Hangover, Headache, Heart, Immune System, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Insomnia, Intestines, Lung, Manic Depression, Marinol, Medical Associations, Multiple Sclerosis, Nail Patella Syndrome, Nausea, Neurological, Neuropathy, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Pain, Paraplegia, Parkinson's, Polio, Reproductive System, Safety, Spasticity, Spinal Injuries, Stomach, Stress, Stroke, Temporo-Mandibular Joint Disorder, Tourette's Syndrome, Weight

 

Medicinal Cannabis Research Organizations & Websites

Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics
California Cannabis Research Medical Group
CannabisMD
CannabisMD Reports
Coalition for Compassionate Access
Contigo-Conmigo
Drug Policy Alliance Network
Erowid
Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies Inc
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws
OnlinePot
RxMarijuana.com
Science of Medical Marijuana

 

Medicinal Cannabis Periodicals

Cannabis Health
Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics (defunct)
Journal of the International Association for Cannabis as Medicine
O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group

 

Medicinal Cannabis Research Books

How To Grow Medical Marijuana by Todd McCormick
Is Marijuana the Right Medicine for You? by Bill Zimmerman
Marijuana: The Forbidden Medicine by Lester Grinspoon, James B Bakalar
Oregon Medical Marijuana Guide by Ed Glick

 

Medicinal Cannabis Research Articles

"Differential effects of medical marijuana based on strain and route of administration"by Valerie Leveroni Corral
"ICD9 Chronic Conditions Treated With Cannabis" by Tod Hiro Mikuriya
"Marijuana is medicine!" by Ronald E Gascon aka John Galt Jr
"Medical Cannabis Contents" by Debora Moore
"Medical Cannabis Research Summary previous to 1992" by Debora Moore
"Medical Journals & US Government Agencies Publications" by Debora Moore
"The Straight Dope on Cannabis-Inspired Meds" by Jill Davis, Popular Science

 

Medicinal efficacy

Also see Comparative Pharmacological efficacy, Tetra-Hydro-Cannabinol

2003: "Nearly all U.S.-funded marijuana research has looked for harmful effects from using marijuana as a recreational drug. Meanwhile, there's been little money – and huge regulatory hurdles – for studies of marijuana's benefits." claims Daniel DeNoon, WebMD Medical News, Aug 29 2003.

2003: "The reportedly successful use of cannabis as an alternative to alcohol, SSRI antidepressants, and stimulants (in the treatment of ADHD) warrants serious, large-scale investigation. A necessary first step is for the doctors who are monitoring patients using cannabis for these purposes to agree on basic definitions, diagnostic criteria, etc., and to adopt uniform record-keeping methods. Hergenrather’s observation that half his cannabis-using patients have been able to stop taking pharmaceutical drugs – and others have reduced their intake – suggests a line of inquiry that belongs on a common interview form." claims Fred Gardner from "Which Conditions are Californians Actually Treating With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Jouurnal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

1997: American Medical Association's House of Delegates votes to adopt a report that recognizes the existence of scientific clinical data showing cannabis' medical value, urges doctors and patients not be punished for discussing cannabis as a treatment option, and urges the United States government to expedite medicinal cannabis research.

1997: "American Medical Association and most other professional medical bodies do not consider marijuana a safe or effective medicine. Other medical organizations which oppose the use of smoked marijuana in treatment include the American Cancer Society, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the National Multiple Sclerosis Association [sic], the National Eye Institute, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the California Medical Association. ... Fact: No credible medical research has shown smoked marijuana to be safe, effective, or therapeutically superior to other substances that have fewer side effects. ... Synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, is currently available in oral form for treatment of HIV Wasting Syndrome and chemotherapy-induced nausea. A double-blind study confirmed that this synthetic drug was preferred by chemotherapy patients by an almost two-to one margin. Controlled research studies are needed to ... determine if [marijuana] has a legitimate medical use. To this end, ONDCP has committed $965,000 to the Institutes of Medicine for a comprehensive review of existing literature for medical uses of marijuana." claims "Marijuana: Myths and Truth", US Office of National Drug Control Policy.(see Parents Ending Prohibition's Rebuttal, Patients Out of Time's Rebuttal)

1997: "With drug use among our children on the upswing, the last message we need to send our youth is that smoked marijuana is a safe, effective medicine." claims "Report on Legalization Trends", US Office of National Drug Control Policy, Feb, 7, 1997.

1997: "... there is no one reliable study that demonstrates marijuana has any medicinal value. ... In 1994, a U.S. Court of Appeals ... noted that marijuana's medicinal value has never been proven in sound scientific studies." claims US Drug Enforcement Administration.

 

Medicinal safety

Also see Cancer safety, Comparative Pharmacological safety, Smoking safety

2003: "These findings suggest no major, short-term harmful effects and possibly some beneficial effects of cannabinoids in HIV-infected patients taking protease inhibitors." claims Donald I Abrams, J F Hilton, R J Leiser, et al, from "Does Marijuana Affect Viral Loads in People with HIV?", Annals of Internal Medicine, Aug 2003, vol 139, pgs 258-266.
annals.org/cgi/content/summary/139/4/..., jointogether.org/sa/news/summaries/reader/0,1854,566530,00.html

1997: "American Medical Association and most other professional medical bodies do not consider marijuana a safe or effective medicine. ... Fact: No credible medical research has shown smoked marijuana to be safe, effective, or therapeutically superior to other substances that have fewer side effects." claims "Marijuana: Myths and Truth", US Office of National Drug Control Policy. (see Patients Out of Time's Rebuttal)

1997: "With drug use among our children on the upswing, the last message we need to send our youth is that smoked marijuana is a safe, effective medicine." claims "Report on Legalization Trends", US Office of National Drug Control Policy, Feb, 7, 1997.

"Cannabis is safe as medicine"
users.lycaeum.org/~sky/data/safe.html

 

 

 

Mouth

2008: "Cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for periodontal disease that is independent of the use of tobacco. ... Three cannabis exposure groups were determined: no exposure (293 individuals, or 32.3%), some exposure (428; 47.4%), and high exposure (182; 20.2%). At age 32 years, 265 participants (29.3%) had 1 or more sites with 4 mm or greater CAL [periodontal combined attachment loss], and 111 participants (12.3%) had 1 or more sites with 5 mm or greater CAL. Incident attachment loss between the ages of 26 and 32 years in the none, some, and high cannabis exposure groups was 6.5%, 11.2%, and 23.6%, respectively. After controlling for tobacco smoking (measured in pack-years), sex, irregular use of dental services, and dental plaque, the relative risk estimates for the highest cannabis exposure group were as follows: 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.2) for having 1 or more sites with 4 mm or greater CAL; 3.1 (95% CI, 1.5-6.4) for having 1 or more sites with 5 mm or greater CAL; and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.2-3.9) for having incident attachment loss (in comparison with those who had never smoked cannabis). Tobacco smoking was strongly associated with periodontal disease experience, but there was no interaction between cannabis use and tobacco smoking in predicting the condition's occurrence." claims W Murray Thomson, et al, "Cannabis Smoking and Periodontal Disease Among Young Adults", Journal of Amercian Medical Association, Feb 6 2008. Also summarized in "Smoking marijuana associated with increased risk for gum disease", "Cannabis indicated as possible risk for gum disease in young people"

 

 

Multiple Sclerosis

Also see Appetite, Insomnia, Nausea, Neurological Disorders, Pain, Spasticity, Tysabri, Weight Loss

2006: "Tysabri has been linked to a potentially fatal brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML. The drug's manufacturers voluntarily pulled it from the market last year, following the deaths of two patients. The drug had been sold for just four months. Dozens of multiple sclerosis patients told a Food and Drug Administration advisory committee Tuesday that they should be allowed to choose whether to take Tysabri. ... In statements frequently punctuated by sobbing pleas, patients told the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs advisory committee that MS posed an even greater risk than did PML. ... Biogen Idec and Elan withdrew Tysabri from the market in February 2005 after two patients in clinical trials involving 7,000 people died of PML." reports Associated Press "FDA panel mulls rare reversal on MS drug", Mar 8 2006

2005: "Health Canada's approval of Sativex was based on the results of a four-week clinical trial involving 66 patients with MS-related neuropathic pain that was carried out in Great Britain, in which half received Sativex and the other half received a placebo. The results showed participants used Sativex (prescribed on an as-needed basis) less often compared to the controls using placebo. Sativex is administered via a spray into the mouth, which is well suited to the variable nature of neuropathic pain experienced by people with MS. Placebo patients in the study also used a spray. The Sativex group reported pain relief, less sleep disturbance and felt their condition had improved. But they also experienced more dizziness, nausea and fatigue. ... Sativex isolates the cannabinoid components, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), representing only two of the more than 60 related chemicals that make up the marijuana plant. It is believed that THC helps patients with pain while CBD has a neurological effect, and that isolating these two cannabinoids will enable patients to eliminate many of the side-effects that are associated with the use of medical marijuana." reports David Hodges, "Pot-based drug shows promise for neuropathic pain", Medical Post vol 41 issue 19, May 17 2005.

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis ... a new mixture of THC and CBD [cannabidiol], which is made by a company in England called G.W. Pharmaceuticals as a spray under the tongue, was approved in Canada. So they will be marketing it in Canada for the prevention of all kinds of multiple sclerosis effects, and they will probably get it approved in England." claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2004: "Cannabis may loosen the stiff and spastic muscles of multiple sclerosis sufferers, and not just their minds, a follow-up study has found.  The results contradict findings from the first phase of the study, where improvements seemed to be largely due to 'good moods'. 'There does seem to be evidence of some benefit from cannabis in the longer term that we didn’t anticipate in the short term study,' says John Zajicek, at Peninsula Medical School in Exeter, UK, and one of the research team. In 2003, Zajicek and his colleagues published results on the largest study to date of cannabinoids and MS. The trial included 630 advanced-stage MS patients who took either cannabinoid compounds or a placebo for 15 weeks. Compared with those on placebos, patients who received active compounds said they both felt less pain and less muscle spasticity – the spasms characteristic of this neurodegenerative disease. ... When the short-term study ended, however, the researchers gave all subjects the opportunity to continue their treatment for a full year. ... More than 500 patients agreed to stay on their original treatment. One group took pills of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in cannabis. The second group received natural cannabis extract, and the third group took a placebo. At the end of the 12 month period, the patients were evaluated again using the same measures as in the first study. But this time, physiotherapists saw a marked improvement for subjects on active drugs. They had reduced muscle spasticity and an improved overall score for their level of disability. ... the results do support animal research that shows cannabinoids may slow nerve cell death and protect against damage. The findings were presented at the British Association for the Advancement of Science Festival, in Exeter, UK." reports Anna Gosline from "Cannabis truly helps multiple sclerosis sufferers", New Scientist, Sept 10 2004.

2004: "Diagnosed with MS in 2001, [Matthew] Barber said he has exhausted all of the acceptable, and expensive, forms of treatment for a disease that affects the central nervous system and has left lesions on Barber's brain. Barber said without the marijuana, he has pain and spasms, imbalance, dizziness, the loss of leg function and sometimes even  blindness. Barber, who served in the Army during the first Gulf War, said a neurologist through Veterans Affairs told him that because all other treatments have failed, that marijuana may alleviate some symptoms." reports Ian C Storey from "MS Sufferer Vows To Fight Pot Laws", Traverse City Record-Eagle, July 7 2004.

2004: "Daytime television talk show host Montel Williams threw his support Tuesday behind legalizing medical marijuana in New York, saying pot helps him cope with multiple sclerosis. Williams, who was diagnosed with the debilitating neurological disease in 1999, said he uses marijuana every night before bed to relieve the pain in his legs and feet. 'I'm breaking the law every day, and I will continue to break the law,' said a defiant Williams, flanked by state lawmakers and health officials, who are lobbying to make pot legal for medicinal purposes. The Emmy award-winning host of the nationally syndicated Montel Williams Show, recalled how prescription painkillers and even morphine failed to control his tremors and spasms. Williams said it was not until he started using marijuana that he was able to feel like a 'contributing member of society.' " reports Alicia Chang from "Montel Williams Pushes Pot – for Medical Relief", Associated Press, May 4 2004.

2004: "Regarding Dr. Miller, remember that he represents the NMMS [National Multiple Sclerosis Society] and obviously is dependent on pharmaceutical industry financial support." claims Denis J Petro, "Ask Dr. Petro", Feb 23 2004.

2004: "... I tried several commonly prescribed painkillers. The results? Little relief and unbearable side effects. The last alternative left? Medical marijuana. In fact, marijuana has helped my symptoms so much that I have become an advocate for the legalization of medical marijuana for qualified patients like me–those suffering from debilitating and/or devastatingly painful diseases. ... Because I do not condone breaking any law, I would like to see all 50 states and the federal government decriminalize medical marijuana. I would also like to see more research into its effects on MS–for the treatment of pain and spasticity." claims Montel Williams from "Taking Action: Montel on Medical Marijuana & MS Treatment", Montel Williams MS Foundation, 331 W 57th St #420, New York, NY 10019, montelms.org, email msfoundation@montelshow.com

2003: "Treatment with [Marinol] cannabinoids did not have a beneficial effect on spasticity when assessed with the Ashworth scale. However, though there was a degree of unmasking among the patients in the active treatment groups, objective improvement in mobility and patients' opinion of an improvement in pain suggest [Marinol] cannabinoids might be clinically useful." claims John Zajicek, Patrick Fox, Hilary Sanders, David Wright, Jane Vickery, Andrew Nunn, Alan Thompson, "Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial", The Lancet, vol 362, no 9395, Nov 2003.
thelancet.com/journal/vol362/iss9395/full/llan.362.9395.original_research.27670.1, cannabisnews.com/news/thread17744.shtml

2003: "This is an exciting time for cannabinoid research. There is a growing amount of data to suggest that cannabis (marijuana) can alleviate symptoms like muscle spasticity and pain in patients with MS. ... cannabinoids are not known to cause deaths by direct toxicity ... Given the favorable effects observed in animal studies, the immunosuppressive and neuroprotective potential of cannabinoids, and anecdotal reports from MS patients claiming that cannabis use reduces the frequency of their MS attacks, some authors believe that cannabinoids could be used to alter the underlying course of the disease." – "Cannabis Use in Multiple Sclerosis: Excited Interest", Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, Aug 2003, pgs 181-182.
cjns.metapress.com/app/home/content.asp?wasp=c5v8d08eqpdvtg91ty47&referrer=contribution&format=3&page=1&pagecount=2

2003: "The majority of respondents (96%) was aware cannabis was potentially therapeuticallyuseful for MS and most (72%) supported legalization for medicinal purposes. ... Symptoms reported to be ameliorated included anxiety/depression, spasticity and chronic pain. ... Conclusions: Subjective improvements in symptom experience were reported by the majority of people with MS who currently use cannabis. Further evaluation of this substance is warranted." claims Page SA, Verhoef MJ, Stebbins RA, Metz LM, Levy JC, "Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis.", Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, Aug 2003, pgs 201-205.

2003: "Using experimental allergic encephalo myelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, we demonstrate that the cannabinoid system is neuroprotective ... Therefore, in addition to symptom management, cannabis may also slow the neurodegenerative processes that ultimately lead to chronic disability in multiple sclerosis and probably other diseases." claims Pryce G, Ahmed Z, Hankey DJ, Jackson SJ, Croxford JL, Pocock JM, Ledent C, Petzold A, Thompson AJ, Giovannoni G, Cuzner ML, Baker D, "Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis", Brain, 2003: 126, pgs 2191-2202.

2003: "Cannabinoids can modulate the function of immune cells. We here present the first human in vivo study measuring immune function in 16 MS patients treated with oral cannabinoids. ... The results suggest pro-inflammatory disease-modifying potential of cannabinoids in MS." claims Killestein J, Hoogervorst EL, Reif M, Blauw B, Smits M, Uitdehaag BM, Nagelkerken L, Polman CH, "Immunomodulatory effects of orally administered cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis.", Journal of Neuroimmunology, Apr 2003, vol 137, no 1-2, pgs 140-143.
sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T03-485V0D4-4&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2003&...
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12667658&dopt=Abstract&itool=iconabstr

2003: "Cannabinoids provide a novel therapeutic target, not only for controlling symptoms, but also slowing disease progression through inhibition of neurodegeneration, which is the cause of accumulating irreversible disability." claims Baker D, Pryce G, "The therapeutic potential of cannabis in multiple sclerosis", Expert Opinion Investigative Drugs, Apr 2003, pgs 561-567.

2003: "Pain relief associated with both THC and CBD was significantly superior to placebo. Impaired bladder control, muscle spasms and spasticity were improved CME [cannabis medicinal extracts] in some patients with these symptoms. ... Cannabis medicinal extracts can improve neurogenic symptoms unresponsive to standard treatments. Unwanted effects are predictble and generally well tolerated. Larger scale studies are warranted to confirm these findings." claims Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J, "A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms.", Clinical Rehabilitation, Feb 2003, pgs 21-29.

2002: "There is a growing amount of evidence to suggest that cannabis and individual cannabinoids may be effective in suppressing certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, including spasticity and pain. ... Clinical trials have shown that cannabis, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and nabilone can produce objective and/or subjective relief from spasticity, pain, tremor, and nocturia in patients with multiple sclerosis (8 trials) or spinal cord injury (1 trial). The clinical evidence is supported by results from experiments with animal models of multiple scleroisis." claims Pertwee RG, "Cannabinoids and multiple sclerosis.", Pharmacological Therapeutics, Aug 2002, pgs 165-174.

2002: "The neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids may have potential clinical relevance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson.s disease, cerebrovascular ischemia and stroke." claims Gregory T Carter and Patrick Weydt from "Cannabis: Old medicine with new promise for neurological disorders"

2000: "The exacerbation of these signs after antagonism of the CB1 and CB2 receptors, notably the CB1 receptor, using SR141716A and SR144528 indicated that the endogenous cannabinoid system may be tonically active in the control of tremor and spasticity. This provides a rationale for patients' indications of the therapeutic potential of cannabis in the control of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis ..." claims Baker D, Pryce G, Croxford JL, Brown P, Pertwee RG, Huffman JW, Layward L, "Cannabinoids control spasticity and tremor in a multiple sclerosis model.", Nature, Mar 2000, pgs 84-87.

1997: "From 97% to 30% of the subjects reported cannabis improved (in descending rank order): spasticity, chronic pain of extremitites, acute paroxysmal phenomenon, tremor, emotional dysfunction, bowel and bladder dysfunctions, vision dimness, dysfunctions of walking and balance, memory loss." claims Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R, "The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.", Eur Neurology, 1997, pgs 44-48.

1996: "The effect of THC on spasticity, rigidity, and pain was estimated by objective neurological tests (Ashworth scale, walking ability) and patient self-rating protocols. Oral and rectal THC reduced at a progressive stage of illness spasticity, rigidity and pain, resulting in improved active and passive mobility. The relative effectiveness of the oral vs. the rectal formation was 25-50%." claims Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y, "The effect of orally and rectally administered delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients.", International Journal Clinical Pharmacological Therapeutics, Oct 1996, pgs 446-452.

1990: "Delta-9-THC and codeine both had an analgesic effect in comparison with placebo. Only delta-9-THC showed a significant beneficial effect on spasticity. In the dosage of THC used no altered consciousness occurred." claims Maurere M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A, "Delta-9-tetrohydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial." Eur Arch Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 1990, pgs 1-4.

1989: "All animals treated with placebo developed severe clininical EAE [experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis] 10-12 days post-injection (dpi) and more than 98% died by 15 dpi. THC-treated animals had either no clinical signs or mild signs with delayed onset (13-15 dpi) with survival greater than 95%. Examination o f central nervous system tissue revealed a marked reduction of inflammation in the THC-treated animals. Therefore, as THC has been shown to inhibit both clinical and histologic EAE, it may prove to be a new and relatively innocuous agent for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases." claims Lyman WD, Sonett JR, Brosnan CF, Elkin R, Bornstein MB, "Delta 9-tetrahydorcannabinol: a novel treatment for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.", Journal of Neuroimmunology, Jun 1989, pgs 73-81.

1989: "The chronic motor handicaps of a 30-year-old multiple sclerosis patient acutely improved while he smoked a marihuana cigarette. ... It is concluded that cannabinoids may have powerful beneficial effects on both spasticity and ataxia that warrant further evaluation." claims Meinck HM, Schonle PW, Conrad B, "Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis.", Journal of Neurology, Feb 1989, pgs 120-122.

1987: "At doses greater than 7.5 mg [of THC] there was significant improvement in patient ratings of spasticity compared to placebo. These positive findings in a treatment failure population suggest a role for THC in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis." claims Ungerleider JT, Andyrsiak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myers LW, "Delta-9-THC in the tratment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis.", Adv Alcohol Substance Abuse, 1987, pgs 39-50.

1986: "Cannabis", Therapeutic Claims in Multiple Sclerosis, published by International Federation of Multiple Sclerosis, pg 226.

1983: "Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis.", Annals of Neurology, 1983, pgs 669-671.

1981: "For the group, 10 mg THC significantly reduced spasticity by clinical measurement (P less than 0.01). Quadiceps EMG interference pattern was reduced in those four patients with primarily extensor spasticity. THC was administred to eight other patients with spasticity and other CNS lesions. Responses varied, but benefit was seen in three of three patients with 'tonic spasms.' " claims Petro DJ, Ellenberger C Jr, "Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydorcannabinol.", Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Aug-Sept 1981, pgs 413S-416S.

"I was diagnosed with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis in 1986 ... My neurologist prescribed the drugs Compazine and Antivert. They had little affect on the nausea and no affect on the appetite, even after the dosage was doubled. After a couple of weeks of feeling sick and not eating, I had lost 15 pounds and no medication was helping. ... I decided to try smoking Cannabis/Marijuana. At first I felt worse, but after the effects of the smoke were gone I began to relax and get an appetite. I could finally eat again. Since that time, I have used cannabis to maintain a healthy body weight and a decent standard of living. For years I left my prescription drugs setting on the counter, as Cannabis was more effective." cliams John E Precup from "Patient Testimonials"

"I have Multiple Sclerosis and have been able to receive little to no relief from the FDA approved medicines my doctors recommended. The doctors had me on Ritalin to give me energy and Prozac to keep my moods level. I took Vicodin [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] and Soma to help with pain. I had to learn to give myself shots, so that I could take my Copaxone drug ... I am not taking any of those drugs now, I haven't for four years now I have been smoking medical marijuana. Since I have been medicating my body with marijuana I have never felt better, my disease has mostly gone into remission ... I am able to work part time and that was not something that was thought possible four short years ago. Marijuana has changed my life with the best possible thing - Hope." claims Meagan Boyd from "Patient Testimonials".

Organizations
Multiple Sclerosis Patients Union

 

 

Nail Patella Syndrome (NPS)

1989: "I am one of only 34 known medically ill individuals who have been approved to use marijuana legally in the U.S. I suffer from a rare neurological disease known as Nail Patella Syndrome (NPS). There are only 200 known cases of this genetic disorder. Of those, eight percent are affected with organ and immune system complications which kills most of them by the age of 40 ... I had a lifetime of mysterious pain and physical ailments ... marijuana was effective in treating the chronic pain associated with my condition. I was born with mild deformities including missing fingernails, double jointed fingers, poorly jointed elbows, and small knee caps." claims George McMahon, from "My Story" chiana.trvnet.net/~mmcmahon/mystory.htm

 

 

Nausea

Also see Appetite, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Dialysis, Hangover, Ingestion, Inhalation, Meclizine, Multiple Sclerosis, Ondansetron, Prochlorperazine, Spasticity, Thiethylperazine

1999: "In 1992 I was found to have testicular cancer. My chemotherapy put me in the hospital for five days at a time, once a month, for four months. But midway through my treatment I could tell that Zofran, then a hot new drug prescribed to combat nausea, was losing its effect. For the remainder of my chemotherapy I turned to marijuana to keep my head out of the toilet. None of the doctors or nurses at the hospitals I went to for treatment (New York University Medical Center) or consultation (Memorial Sloan-Kettering) discouraged me from using marijuana should the need arise. They said they had patients who had benefited from it when other drugs had failed." claims Richard Brookhiser, senior editor of National Review, from a letter to New York Times, May 22, 1999.

1990: 54% of cancer specialists randomly surveyed favor the availability of medicinal cannabis, claim R Doblin & M Kleiman, "Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine", Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol 9, no 7, pgs 1314-1319, 1991.

1988: "Marijuana cigarettes in many cses are superior to synthetic THC capsules in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marijuana cigarettes have an important, clear advantage over synthetic THC capsules in that natural marijuana is inhaled and generally takes effect more quickly than the synthetic capsule" claims Francis L Young, Chief Administrative Law Judge, US Drug Enforcement Administration, 1988.

1988: "Patient evaluations have indicated that approximately ninety-three (93) percent of marijuana inhalation treatment episodes are reported to be 'effective' or 'highly effective' when compared to other antiemetics." 78% of 56 patients had no improvement with standard antiemetics, claims Vinciguerra, et al, "Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy", New York State Journal of Medicine, pgs 525-527, Oct 1988.

1986: "I started feeling the changes pretty much right away. Smoking marijuana also felt ten times better than taking Marinol pill. It helped reduce my nausea and I could hold down food better." claims Jim Kerns, cancer and chemotherapy patient.

1983: "We found both marijuana smoking and THC capsules to be effective antiemetics. We found an approximate 23 percent higher success rate among those patients smoking (90%) than among those administered THC capsules (67%). ... We found that the major reason for smoking failure was smoking intolerance; while the major reason for THC capsule failure was nausea and vomiting so severe that the patient could not retain the capsule." claims Annual Report: Evaluation of Marijuana and Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Treatment of Nausea and/or Vomiting Associated with Cancer Therapy Unresponsive to Conventional Anti-Emetic Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity, Board of Pharmacy, State of Tennessee, July 1983.

1981: 71% of patients randomized to receive cannabis report no emesis to moderate nausea. 90% of patients receiving cannabis choose to remain on cannabis rather than switch to the antiemetic Torecan, 95% of patients randomized to Torecan choose to discontinue use of Torecan and switched to cannabis, claims "Michigan Department of Public Health Marijuana Therapeutic Research Project, Trial A 1980-81", Department of Social Oncology, Evaluation Unit, Michigan Cancer Foundation, March 18, 1982.

1981: "74 percent of the cancer patients treated in the program have reported that [inhaled] marijuana is more effective in relieveing their nausea and vomiting than any other drug they have tried." claims California Research Advisory Panel, Annual Report of the California Research Advisory Panel, vol 12, submitted to the Governor and Legislature.

1979: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of THC and smoked cannabis finds a 72% reduction of nausea and vomiting in cancer patients, claims Chang et al, "Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High Dose Methotrexate", Annals of Internal Medicine, vol 91, no 6, pgs 819-824, Dec 1979.

1975: Botanical cannabis is more successful than synthetic THC in reducing nausea in some cancer patients, claims S E Sallin, N E Zinberg and D Frei, "Antiemetic Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy", New England Journal of Medicine, 293-16, pgs 795-797, 1975.

"I was diagnosed with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis in 1986 ... My neurologist prescribed the drugs Compazine and Antivert. They had little affect on the nausea and no affect on the appetite, even after the dosage was doubled. After a couple of weeks of feeling sick and not eating, I had lost 15 pounds and no medication was helping. ... I decided to try smoking Cannabis/Marijuana. At first I felt worse, but after the effects of the smoke were gone I began to relax and get an appetite. I could finally eat again. Since that time, I have used cannabis to maintain a healthy body weight and a decent standard of living. For years I left my prescription drugs setting on the counter, as Cannabis was more effective." cliams John E Precup from "Patient Testimonials"

 

 

Neurological Disorders

Includes post-traumatic stress disorder, trauma
also see
Alzheimer's, ALS, Anxiety, Brain, Cerebral Palsy, Cerebrovascular Ischemia, Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis, Nail Patella Syndrome, Neuropathy, Paraplegia, Parkinson's, Quadiplegia, Spasticity, Spinal Injuries, Stroke

"How the World's Foremost Psychedelic Researchers Finally Got Some Weed to Study" by Thor Benson, Mar 18 2014

2013: "A new study from Harvard University may help dismiss concerns about the link between marijuana use and schizophrenia. While many still debate the potential for marijuana to cause schizophrenia, researchers at Harvard Medical School say there has 'yet to be conclusive evidence that cannabis use may cause psychosis.' Their latest study, published last week in the journal Schizophrenia Research, adds support to the role of genetic factors in schizophrenia, and that marijuana use alone does not increase the risk of developing the disorder. 'In summary, we conclude that cannabis does not cause psychosis by itself. In genetically vulnerable individuals, while cannabis may modify the illness onset, severity and outcome, there is no evidence from this study that it can cause the psychosis.' The team, led by Lynn DeLisi, MD, Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, compared the family histories of 108 schizophrenia patients and 171 individuals without schizophrenia to determine whether cannabis use was a factor in developing the disorder. They found that a family history of schizophrenia increased the risk of developing schizophrenia, regardless of whether or not an individual used cannabis. The authors say further studies should investigate whether marijuana can interact with genetic factors to affect the age at which schizophrenia develops. However, the latest findings provide enough evidence for Dr. DeLisi and her team to conclude that cannabis 'is unlikely to be the cause of illness.' "
"Marijuana Does Not Cause Schizophrenia, Harvard Study Finds" by Leaf Science, Dec 8 2013

2005: "Most recently, one of the synthetic compounds (HU-211) from Dr. [Raphael] Mechoulam's lab has completed phase 2 clinical trials against head trauma with evidence of a neuroprotective effect." reports David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2005: "Can smoking pot make you potty? Even as the UK government mulls over evidence that cannabis can cause mental health problems, a new study suggests the link may be hazier than thought. ... Some studies have suggested long-term cannabis use can increase your risk of developing schizophrenia (New Scientist, 26 March 2005, p 44). Others have linked the drug to milder 'schizotypal traits' that include odd, magical beliefs and social paranoia. To test whether people who already have these traits are more likely to start using cannabis, Jason Schiffman at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu and his colleagues gave 189 students questionnaires about their cannabis use. The students were also asked if they had any schizotypal traits and if so when these traits first arose. The results showed that the majority of people who'd recently used cannabis had schizotypal symptoms before using the drug (Psychiatry Research, vol 134, p 37). Schiffman admits that the limited study 'leaves far more questions than answers' - for instance, it gives no clues as to why people with such traits might be attracted to cannabis." – "Cannabis and schizophrenia link blurs further", New Scientist, Apr 16 2005.

2002: "The neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids may have potential clinical relevance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular ischemia and stroke." claims Gregory T Carter and Patrick Weydt from "Cannabis: Old medicine with new promise for neurological disorders"

 

 

Neuropathy

2001: "I have been a diabetic for 25 of those years. During this time, I have had amputations to both feet. I've also had a stroke and am on dialysis. I have what is called neuropathy. This is a highly painful nerve disorder. Sometimes the pain was so severe I would wish my hands were cut off. I was taking 2800mg of Neuroten a day plus 4 to 6 Percocet. I also have severe hypertension and take 100 mg of Zoloft. After two years I became so dependent on the Percocet. I was taking sometimes more than 10 a day. Then I started smoking marijuana. It helped me stop taking the narcotics. I have stopped taking Percocet and take only 400mg of the Neuroten. My pain is gone. When I get really hyper I take about three hits and stay calm for hours. This dialysis really zaps your energy. But I take a few hits after treatment, and have energy to function all day." claims anonymous patient from "Patient Story - Neuropathy", May 6 2001, updated July 19 2001.

 

 

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Also see Depression, Manic Depression, Paxil

2001: "I have smoked weed off and on for 20 years, and now everyday. I find that with it I take less Paxil, and I am able to function better.", Manic-depression/obsessive compulsive disorder patient, Mar 11 2001.

 

 

Pain

Also see Spasticity

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids ... Analgesic action ... have also been shown. ... new drugs that are currently being developed from cannabinoid analogs ... new types of pain killers ..." claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2003: "Treatment with [Marinol] cannabinoids did not have a beneficial effect on spasticity when assessed with the Ashworth scale. However, though there was a degree of unmasking among the patients in the active treatment groups, objective improvement in mobility and patients' opinion of an improvement in pain suggest [Marinol] cannabinoids might be clinically useful." claims John Zajicek, Patrick Fox, Hilary Sanders, David Wright, Jane Vickery, Andrew Nunn, Alan Thompson, "Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial", The Lancet, vol 362, no 9395, Nov 2003.
thelancet.com/journal/vol362/iss9395/full/llan.362.9395.original_research.27670.1

2003: "This is an exciting time for cannabinoid research. There is a growing amount of data to suggest that cannabis (marijuana) can alleviate symptoms like muscle spasticity and pain in patients with MS. ... cannabinoids are not known to cause deaths by direct toxicity ... Given the favorable effects observed in animal studies, the immunosuppressive and neuroprotective potential of cannabinoids, and anecdotal reports from MS patients claiming that cannabis use reduces the frequency of their MS attacks, some authors believe that cannabinoids could be used to alter the underlying course of the disease." – "Cannabis Use in Multiple Sclerosis: Excited Interest", Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, Aug 2003, pgs 181-182.
cjns.metapress.com/app/home/content.asp?wasp=c5v8d08eqpdvtg91ty47&referrer=contribution&format=3&page=1&pagecount=2

2003: "The majority of respondents (96%) was aware cannabis was potentially therapeuticallyuseful for MS and most (72%) supported legalization for medicinal purposes. ... Symptoms reported to be ameliorated included anxiety/depression, spasticity and chronic pain. ... Conclusions: Subjective improvements in symptom experience were reported by the majority of people with MS who currently use cannabis. Further evaluation of this substance is warranted." claims Page SA, Verhoef MJ, Stebbins RA, Metz LM, Levy JC, "Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis.", Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, Aug 2003, pgs 201-205.

2003: "Pain relief associated with both THC and CBD was significantly superior to placebo. Impaired bladder control, muscle spasms and spasticity were improved CME [cannabis medicinal extracts] in some patients with these symptoms. ... Cannabis medicinal extracts can improve neurogenic symptoms unresponsive to standard treatments. Unwanted effects are predictble and generally well tolerated. Larger scale studies are warranted to confirm these findings." claims Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J, "A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms.", Clinical Rehabilitation, Feb 2003, pgs 21-29.

2002: "There is a growing amount of evidence to suggest that cannabis and individual cannabinoids may be effective in suppressing certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, including spasticity and pain. ... Clinical trials have shown that cannabis, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and nabilone can produce objective and/or subjective relief from spasticity, pain, tremor, and nocturia in patients with multiple sclerosis (8 trials) or spinal cord injury (1 trial). The clinical evidence is supported by results from experiments with animal models of multiple scleroisis." claims Pertwee RG, "Cannabinoids and multiple sclerosis.", Pharmacological Therapeutics, Aug 2002, pgs 165-174.

1997: "From 97% to 30% of the subjects reported cannabis improved (in descending rank order): spasticity, chronic pain of extremitites, acute paroxysmal phenomenon, tremor, emotional dysfunction, bowel and bladder dysfunctions, vision dimness, dysfunctions of walking and balance, memory loss." claims Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R, "The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.", Eur Neurology, 1997, pgs 44-48.

1997: "... researchers reported Sunday that active chemicals found in the [cannabis] plant could serve as an effective remedy for the millions who suffer serious pain each year, without the unwanted side effects of more traditional morphine-like drugs." reports Robert Lee Hotz from "Marijuana for pain relief?", Los Angeles Times, Oct 27 1997.

1996: "The effect of THC on spasticity, rigidity, and pain was estimated by objective neurological tests (Ashworth scale, walking ability) and patient self-rating protocols. Oral and rectal THC reduced at a progressive stage of illness spasticity, rigidity and pain, resulting in improved active and passive mobility. The relative effectiveness of the oral vs. the rectal formation was 25-50%." claims Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y, "The effect of orally and rectally administered delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients.", International Journal Clinical Pharmacological Therapeutics, Oct 1996, pgs 446-452.

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... Presently he is taking Tylox [oxycodone and acetaminophen] 1 or 2 per day for severe headaches, Marinol to provide some daily control and Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] and Lithium to control the depression associated with his constant turmoil. There are occasions when he is seen in the office or the emergency room and given shots of Demerol [meperidine] and Phenergren [promethazine]. Even these shots do not give him full relief of his headaches, but do, when things are severe, give him a few hours of peace. The only drug that seems to give William any true felief from pain is that from smoking marijuana. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug. It should be noted that the Marinol only gives him partial and inadequate pain relief." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

1990: "Delta-9-THC and codeine both had an analgesic effect in comparison with placebo. Only delta-9-THC showed a significant beneficial effect on spasticity. In the dosage of THC used no altered consciousness occurred." claims Maurere M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A, "Delta-9-tetrohydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial." Eur Arch Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 1990, pgs 1-4.

1989: "I am one of only 34 known medically ill individuals who have been approved to use marijuana legally in the U.S. I suffer from a rare neurological disease known as Nail Patella Syndrome (NPS). There are only 200 known cases of this genetic disorder. Of those, eight percent are affected with organ and immune system complications which kills most of them by the age of 40 ... I had a lifetime of mysterious pain and physical ailments ... marijuana was effective in treating the chronic pain associated with my condition. I was born with mild deformities including missing fingernails, double jointed fingers, poorly jointed elbows, and small knee caps." claims George McMahon, from "My Story" chiana.trvnet.net/~mmcmahon/mystory.htm

 

 

Parkinson's Disease

Also see Brain, Neurological Disorders

2013: "I’m learning from other Parkinson’s patients that there are different treatments besides the drugs they give you. A lot of patients tell me marijuana is very effective for Parkinsonism." from "Linda Ronstadt Explores Alternative Treatments For Parkinson’s Disease: Is Marijuana An Effective Treatment?" by (uncredited), Sept 18 2013
unewser.blogspot.com/2013/09/linda-ronstadt-explores-alternative.html, aidesante.net/english/linda-ronstadt-explores-alternative-treatments-for-parkinsons-disease-is-marijuana-an-effective-treatment

2004: "The long-term treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) may be complicated by the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Clinical and animal model data support the view that modulation of cannabinoid function may exert an antidyskinetic effect. The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial to examine the hypothesis that cannabis may have a beneficial effect on dyskinesia in PD. ... Cannabis was well tolerated, and had no pro- or antiparkinsonian action. There was no evidence for a treatment effect on levodopa-induced dyskinesia as assessed by the UPDRS, or any of the secondary outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: Orally administered cannabis extract resulted in no objective or subjective improvement in dyskinesias or parkinsonism." – "Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study" by Carroll, Bain, Teare, Liu, et al, Neurology, #63(7), Pgs 1245-1250, Oct 12 2004.

2004: "An anonymous questionnaire sent to all patients attending the Prague Movement Disorder Centre revealed that 25% of 339 respondents had taken cannabis and 45.9% of these described some form of benefit." from "Survey on cannabis use in Parkinson's disease: subjective improvement of motor symptoms." by K Venderrova, E Ruzicka, V Vorisek, P Vsnovsky, Movement Disorder, Sept 2004, vol 19 no 9, pgs 1102-1106
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mds.20111/abstract cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=33

2002: "The neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids may have potential clinical relevance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular ischemia and stroke." claims Gregory T Carter and Patrick Weydt from "Cannabis: Old medicine with new promise for neurological disorders"

 

 

Polio

Includes post polio syndrome

"... a chronic fatigue/fibromyalgia support group recommended marijuana ... for [my] post polio syndrome. I was amazed. Just a few puffs took away the pain. I was able to move around comfortably to walk, clean my house, and do all the things I needed to do. While living in California, and then for awhile in Hawaii, I had legal access to marijuana. This was during the time after these states had made marijuana available for medical use. ... I returned to Arkansas ... Since my return, I have not been able to obtain marijuana. My doctor has prescribed a variety of medications but these seem to have little effect on my symptoms. I still feel stiff and my body aches. The worst part is that these drugs make me very groggy. I'm afraid to drive and I don't feel very sociable. ... I don't know how much these powerful pain medications may be contributing to my depression, but now I'm also having to take strong mood altering drugs to control the depression. I take Darvocet for pain, Flexeril for muscle spasms, Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] for pain and as a sedative, Celexa for depression, and Klonopin as an antidepressant. ... I am seriously considering moving to one of the states where marijuana is available ..." claims Jean Cooper from "Patient Story - Jean - Childhood Polio".

 

 

Polls

2005: 78% of Americans support "making marijuana legally available for doctors to prescribe in order to reduce pain and suffering", reports Gallup, Nov 2005.

2004: "The majority of respondents 45 and older (72%) agree that adults should be allowed to legally use marijuana for medical purposes if a physician recommends it. ... More than one-half of respondents believe that marijuana has medical benefits (59%) and that they would obtain marijuana for a suffering loved one (55%). One-third of respondents think that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for medical purposes (33%) and one-quarter (23%) think that marijuana should be legalized. Three-quarters of respondents think that marijuana is addictive (74%) and almost one-third (30%) have smoked marijuana.The majority of respondents think that the decision to legalize marijuana is a federal issue (52%). ... More respondents from the north east (79%) and west (82%) agreed that adults should be allowed to legally use marijuana for medical purposes compared to respondents from other areas of the country. Respondents from the west (69%) were more likely to agree that marijuana has medical benefits compared to their counterparts. More respondents from the north east (60%), and from the west (62%) said they would obtain marijuana for a suffering loved one. Respondents from the west (41%) were also more likely to agree adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for medical purposes compared to their counterparts. The percentage of respondents who believe all marijuana use should be legalized did not vary significantly across different areas of the country. However, respondents from the west (49%) were more likely to think the decision to legalize marijuana should be a state issue compared to other respondents (38% overall)." reports Jean Kalata from "Medical Uses of Marijuana: Opinions of U.S. Residents 45+" (PDF), AARP The Magazine, Dec 2004. Also see HTML summary

2002: 40 percent of respondents favor legalization of cannabis and 80 percent favor legalization of medicinal cannabis, reports CNN/Time Magazine Poll, Oct 23-24, 2002. norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=5550

2001: 61 percent of respondents oppose arresting and jailing nonviolent cannabis smokers, reports Zogby International, Nov 27-29, 2001. norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=5052

1999: 66 percent of respondents oppose federal sanctions against physicians who prescribe cannabis, reports Behavior Research Center, May 23, 1999.

1999: 96 percent of respondents said they support the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes, 89 percent of respondents said they did not think legalizing medical cannabis would open the doors to the legalization of other illicit drugs, reports CNN Interactive, Apr 1999.

1999: 78 percent of respondents strongly agree or agree with the government's consideration of legalizing cannabis as a medical treatment, claim Decima Research Inc, Canada, Apr 7, 1999.

1999: 73 percent of respondents said they would vote for making cannabis legally available for doctors to prescribe, claim Gallup Poll News Service, Mar 21, 1999.

1999: 90 percent of respondents said the federal government should approve the use of cannabis for medical purposes, reports Chicago Sun-Times, Mar 18, 1999.

1999: 82 percent of respondents said doctors should be able to prescribe cannabis, reports Harris/Excite, Mar 18, 1999.

1999: 64 percent of respondents favored protecting patients who use medical cannabis from civil or criminal penalties, reports Mason-Dixon Research Poll, Mar 15, 1999.

1999: 63 percent of respondents said they support the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes, reports Fairbanks, Maslin, Maulin, and Associates Hawaii Voter Poll, Sept 30 - Oct 4, 1998.

1996: 34 percent of college freshmen support legalizing cannabis compared to 17 percent in 1989, reports University of California's Freshmen Survey, from "Casual sex, legal abortion lose support with college freshmen", Detriot News, Jan 8 1996.

Poll Websites

(John) Galt, Jr's "Recent Polls!"
members.aol.com/johng101/lake.htm

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws' Surveys & Polls
norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=4420

 

 

Potency

2006: "Cannabinoid content of NIDA pot is highly variable, and a THC potency of 6 to 8 percent is about as high as researchers can hope for. By contrast, Canada distributes medical marijuana to patients at 12.5 percent, and medical marijuana in the Netherlands ranges from 13 to 18 percent potency. 'I've spoken to patients who have used [NIDA marijuana], and they've said it's everything from worthless to other descriptions I should not use,' [Lyle E] Craker says. 'The patient has to smoke one cigarette after the other to get any effective relief from pain.' Ethan Russo, a neurologist and now a senior medical adviser to GW Pharmaceuticals, conducted patient studies with NIDA marijuana and reported, 'A close inspection of the contents of NIDA-supplied cannabis cigarettes reveals them to be a crude mixture of leaf with abundant stem and seed components. ... The resultant smoke is thick, acrid, and pervasive.' " reports Jessica Winter, "Weed Control", Boston Globe, May 28 2006. Also see ;US NIDA, Lyle E Craker, Ethan Russo

2004: "The Marijuana Potency Project, at the University of Mississippi, analysed more than 30,000 samples seized over the past 18 years by the authorities. It found that the average level of the active ingredient in marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), jumped from 3.5 per cent in 1985 to more than 7 per cent in 2003." reports Richard Luscombe from "Bush Targets Marijuana Smokers", Observer UK, July 25 2004.

2002: "Parents are often unaware that today's marijuana is different from that of a generation ago, with potency levels 10 to 20 times stronger than the marijuana with which they were familiar." claims US Office of National Drug Control Policy Director John P Walters, "The Myth of 'Harmless' Marijuana", Washington Post, May 1 2002, pg A25.

2002: "Federal research shows that the average potency of cannabis in the US has increased very little. According to the federal Potency Monitoring Project, in 1985, the average THC content of commercial-grade marijuana was 2.84%, and the average for high-grade sinsemilla in 1985 was 7.17%. In 1995, the potency of commercial-grade marijuana averaged 3.73%, while the potency of sinsemilla in 1995 averaged 7.51%. In 2001, commercial-grade marijuana averaged 4.72% THC, and the potency of sinsemilla in 2001 averaged 9.03%." – Quarterly Report #76, Nov. 9, 2001-Feb. 8, 2002, Table 3, pg 8, University of Mississippi Potency Monitoring Project (Oxford, MS: National Center for the Development of Natural Products, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2002), Mahmoud A. ElSohly, PhD, Dir, NIDA Marijuana Project (NIDA Contract #N01DA-0-7707).

1999: "According to University of Mississippi analyses, the THC content of commercial-grade marijuana has risen slowly over the years from an average of 3.71 percent in 1985 to an average of 5.57 percent in 1998. These analyses also show a corresponding rise in sinsemilla THC content from 7.28 percent in 1985 to 12.32 percent in 1998." More recently, the US National Drug Intelligence Center's "National Drug Threat Assessment 2002 " report, released December 2001, stated that "Overall, potency, as characterized by THC content, is still increasing. According to data from the Potency Monitoring Project, the THC content of commercial-grade marijuana increased from 1997 to 2000 for commercial-grade (4.25% to 4.92%) and for sinsemilla (11.62% to 13.20%)." – "Drug Intelligence Brief: The Cannabis Situation in the United States, December 1999"

1997: "Marijuana is currently up to 25 times more potent than it was in the 1960's ..." claims Say It Straight: Our Health, Our Youth and Marijuana, Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America.

1991: "The repetition of undocumented potency claims by governmental and governmentally funded speakers parallels the similarly undocumented claims of marijuana's adverse ... effects." claims John P Morgan, MD, in a letter published in New York Times, Nov 19, 1991.

1980: "Marijuana is up to ten times more potent than that smoked a decade ago." – "Marijuana: The Myth of Harmlessness Goes Up in Smoke", Saturday Evening Post, Jul/Aug 1980, pg 34.

"It appears that Mr Walters is given to histrionics, or of simply being at best ingenuous, at worst a bald-faced liar. Clearly, significantly powerful cannabis preparations have been available for decades. If we narrow our focus to just 'marijuana,' the lowest recorded average potency was measured in 1973 at 0.83 percent THC. By contrast, the highest recorded average potency for 'marijuana' was measured in 2001 at 4.72 percent THC. These numbers indicate that today's 'marijuana' weighs in at less than 6 times as potent as that from the last generation." claims Brian C Bennett from "Modern Day 'Super Weed'"

 

 

Pregnancy

2013: "After evaluating the children at 3 days old, one month old, four years old, and five years old, [Melanie C] Dreher found no adverse effects among the marijuana-exposed group, even with the babies of heavy users. In fact, at the one-month evaluation, the children of mothers who smoked pot performed better on every variable studied, and were less prone to stress-related anxiety – findings Dreher attributed to the higher social standing of the moms who could afford ganja." reports M J Dylan from "Pot and Pregnancy: It’s Harmless, So Why Are Moms Still Prosecuted?" Opposing Views, Sept 10 2013

2010: "Warnings that marijuana causes birth defects date back to the late 1960s. Some researchers claimed to have found chromosomal abnormalities in blood cells taken from marijuana users. They predicted that young men and women who used marijuana would produce deformed babies. Although later studies disproved this theory, some current drug education materials still claim that genetic damage is passed on by marijuana users to their children. ... Dozens of studies have compared the newborn babies of women who used marijuana during pregnancy with the babies of women who did not. Mainly, they have looked for differences in birth weight, birth length, head circumference, chest circumference, gestational age, neurological development, and physical abnormalities. Most of these studies, including the largest study to date with a sample of over twelve thousand women, have found no differences between babies exposed to marijuana prenatally and babies not exposed. Given the large number of studies and the large number of measures, some differences are likely to occur by chance. Indeed, researchers have found differences in both directions. In some studies, the babies of marijuana users appear healthier and hardier. In others, researchers have found more adverse outcomes in the babies of marijuana users. ... A study of one-year-olds found no differences between marijuana-exposed and nonexposed babies on measures of health, temperament, personality, sleeping patterns, eating habits, psychomotor ability, physical development, or mental functioning. In two studies, one of three-year-olds, the other of four-year-olds, there was no effect of prenatal marijuana exposure on children’s overall IQ test scores. ... After controlling for known confounding variables, [Peter A] Fried estimates that prenatal drug exposure accounts for 8 percent or less of the variance in children’s scores on developmental and cognitive tests—and this estimate is for alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana combined. In essentially all studies, marijuana contributes less than alcohol or tobacco. In addition, the findings differ from one study to another, and show no consistent relationship of fetal harm to either the timing or degree of marijuana exposure. While it is sensible to advise women to abstain from all drugs during pregnancy, the weight of current scientific evidence suggests that marijuana does not directly harm the human fetus." summarizes Lynn Zimmer, John P Morgan from "Use of Marijuana During Pregnancy", Mothering, Feb 22 2010, updated June 20 2013

2002: "Up to approximately 3 years of age there appears to be very little impact upon the offspring. Beyond that age, in utero cannabis exposure does not impact upon standardized derived IQ scores but is negatively associated with attentional behavior and visual analysis/hypothesis testing. These findings are hypothesized as prenatal marijuana exposure having a negative influence on aspects of executive function–a “top-down,” multifaceted cognitive construct involved in organizing and integrating specific cognitive and output processes over a interval of time. The results and their interpretation are examined in terms of behavioral teratogenic effects (or lack of effects) during the various developmental stages of the offspring, the non-unitary nature of executive function, cannabis receptors, and the consequences of chronic marijuana use in the non-pregnant population." summarizes Peter A Fried from "The Consequences of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy: A Review of the Human Literature.", Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, vol 2 no 3/4, 2002, pgs 85-104

1998: "Our testing showed that the children of women who used ganja had better alertness, stability and adjustment than children of women who didn't use ganja. This was measured at the age of one month. We measured children again at four years and at five years of age, and found that there were no apparent deficits in the children of marijuana-using mothers. In fact, in many ways, they were better off than children of non-smoking mothers. The ganja-using mothers also seemed better off than non-users." claims Melanie Dreher from "Dr. Melanie Dreher, reefer researcher", Cannabis Culture, Nov 1 1998

 

 

Progression

Cannabis use correlation to other drug use and crime
Includes "gateway" theory, "stepping stone" theory, "gatekeeper" theory
Also see
Aggression, Legal Progression

2006: "... National Survey on Drug Use and Health, conducted in 2004, counted about 97 million Americans who have tried marijuana, compared to 3 million who have tried heroin (166,000 had used it in the previous month). That's not much of a rush through the gateway. And a number of studies have demonstrated that your chances of becoming an addict are higher if addiction runs in your family, or if heroin is readily available in your community, or if you're a risk-taker. These factors can account for the total number of heroin addicts, which could make the gateway theory superfluous. On close inspection, [Mount Sinai School of Medicine Prof Yasmin] Hurd's research, published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology, doesn't show otherwise. For the most part, it's a blow to the gateway theory. To be sure, Hurd found that rats who got high on pot as adolescents used more heroin once they were addicted. But she found no evidence that they were more likely to become addicted than the rats in the control group who'd never been exposed to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, marijuana's main ingredient. ... The control rats paced their cages and repeatedly pressed the active bars even when the light indicating availability wasn't on. The pot rats, on the other hand, figured out that the heroin was available only at certain times, and that pacing and tapping the bar incessantly wasn't worth the trouble. When heroin was available, the marijuana rats took more of it. But when it wasn't, they chilled in the corner." reports Ryan Grim, "Gateway to Nowhere? The evidence that pot doesn't lead to heroin.", Slate mag, July 20 2006.

2004: "Another important question about the effects of drug policies concerns the use of other illicit drugs. The 'separation of markets,' in which lawfully regulated cannabis distribution reduces the likelyhood that people seeking cannabis will be drawn into deviant subcultures where 'hard drugs' also are sold is one public health objective of Dutch decriminalization." claims claims Craig Reinarman, Peter DA. Cohen, Hendrien L Kaal from "The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy: Cannabis in Amsterdam and in San Francisco", American Journal of Public Health, vol 94, no 5, May 2004, pgs 836-842. Also at regulatemarijuana.org/pdf/ajph_050104.pdf

2004: "NDTS 2003 data indicate, however, that a relatively small percentage (4.6%) of state and local law enforcement agencies nationwide identify marijuana as the drug most contributing to violent crime in their areas. An association between marijuana and property crime is stronger, as evidenced by the 11.8 percent of state and local agencies across the country that identified marijuana as the drug most contributing to property crime in their areas." claims US National Drug Intelligence Center from National Drug Threat Assessment 2004: Marijuana, Apr 2004.

2003: "In Nevada, more than 67% of teens try marijuana before graduating from high school. By contrast, in the Netherlands, where marijuana is sold in indoor establishments to adults who are carded for age, teenage marijuana use rates are dramatically lower. It would appear that taking marijuana off the streets and regulating it reduces teen access to marijuana." claims Stop Teen Use Of Marijuana. stopteenuse.com/home

2003: "Researchers looked at over 300 pairs of same sex twins, both identical and non-identical, in which one twin started using cannabis before his or her 17th birthday and the other did not. ... found that the early user was two to five times more likely to go on to use harder drugs or become dependent on alcohol - regardless of whether they were an identical twin or not. ... not everyone who likes a drink ends up as a coke addict, but very few users of hard drugs have not tried cannabis first. The twin study rules out a large genetic component. But it also suggests that the home and womb environment may not a key factor either, because the twins shared both and yet early marijuana use in one still raised the chances of later hard drug use. ... it is impossible to eliminate all nurture differences between twins. For example, one twin might have suffered a traumatic event in childhood that did not affect the other. ... The work shows that marijuana is indeed a gateway to other illicit drugs, says Denise Kandel, at Columbia University, New York, in an editorial commenting on the journal paper. Therefore, whatever the appropriate intervention turns out to be, it must be focussed on young cannabis users, she says." – "Marijuana's link to hard drug use not genetic" by James Randerson, New Scientist, review of Journal of the American Medical Association, vol 289, pgs 427, 482.

2002: "A new study by the RAND Drug Policy Research Center casts doubt on claims that marijuana acts as a 'gateway' to the use of cocaine and heroin, challenging an assumption that has guided US drug policies since the 1950s. ... 'We've shown that the marijuana gateway effect is not the best explanation for the link between marijuana use and the use of harder drugs,' said Andrew Morral, associate director of RAND's Public Safety and Justice unit and lead author of the study. 'An alternative, simpler and more compelling explanation accounts for the pattern of drug use you see in this country, without resort to any gateway effects. While the gateway theory has enjoyed popular acceptance, scientists have always had their doubts. Our study shows that these doubts are justified.' The study demonstrates that associations between marijuana and hard drug use could be expected even if marijuana use has no gateway effect. Instead, the associations can result from known differences in the ages at which youths have opportunities to use marijuana and hard drugs, and known variations in individuals' willingness to try any drugs, researchers found. ... 'The people who are predisposed to use drugs and have the opportunity to use drugs are more likely than others to use both marijuana and harder drugs," Morral said. "Marijuana typically comes first because it is more available. Once we incorporated these facts into our mathematical model of adolescent drug use, we could explain all of the drug use associations that have been cited as evidence of marijuana's gateway effect.' ... RAND researchers tested the marijuana gateway theory by creating a mathematical model simulating adolescent drug use. Rates of marijuana and hard drug use in the model matched those observed in survey data collected from representative samples of youths from across the United States. Without assuming any gateway effect, the model produced patterns of drug use and abuse remarkably similar to what is experienced across the nation, showing that a marijuana gateway effect is not needed to explain the observed behavior." claims RAND Drug Policy Research Center from "RAND Study Casts Doubt on Claims That Marijuana Acts as 'Gateway' to the Use of Cocaine and Heroin", Dec 2 2002.

1999: "There is no conclusive evidence that the drug effects of marijuana are causally linked to the subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs. ... Patterns in progression of drug use from adolescence to adulthood are strikingly regular. Because it is the most widely used illicit drug, marijuana is predictably the first illicit drug most people encounter. Not surprisingly, most users of other illicit drugs have used marijuana first. In fact, most drug users begin with alcohol and nicotine before marijuana, usually before they are of legal age." claims Janet E Joy, Stanley J Watson Jr, and John A Benson Jr, Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base, Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999).

1997: "Long-term studies consistently show that only one in five youthful pot smokers will ever try harder drugs such as cocaine heroin, or methamphetamine, and fewer than one in 25 will use hard drugs regularly. The upshot is not that marijuana leads the masses to hard stuff, but that the few who use stronger drugs will not say no to weaker ones. (For the latest summary of research demolishing "reefer madness 1997," see Rolling Stone, 2/20/97.)" claims Mike Males from "Why Are Media Enlisting in the Government's Crusade Against Marijuana?", July/Aug 1997.

1994: "Children who use marijuana are 85 times more likely to use cocaine than non-marijuana users. (Ninety percent of children who used marijuana smoked or drank first.) ... Adults who used marijuana as children are 17 times more likely to be regular cocaine users. (Ninety-one percent of adults who used marijuana as children smoked or drank first.)" claims Joseph A Califano, Jr, Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia, Oct 27, 1994.

1995: "The primary basis for this 'gateway hypothesis' is a recent report by the Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA), claiming that marijuana users are 85 times more likely than non-marijuana users to try cocaine. This figure, using data from NIDA's 1991 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, is close to being meaningless. It was calculated by dividing the proportion of marijuana users who have ever used cocaine (17%) by the proportion of cocaine users who have never used marijuana (.2%). The high risk-factor obtained is a product not of the fact that so many marijuana users use cocaine but that so many cocaine users used marijuana previously. It is hardly a revelation that people who use one of the least popular drugs are likely to use the more popular ones – not only marijuana, but also alcohol and tobacco cigarettes. The obvious statistic not publicized by CASA is that most marijuana users – 83 percent – never use cocaine. Indeed, for the nearly 70 million Americans who have tried marijuana, it is clearly a 'terminus' rather than a 'gateway' drug." claim John P Morgan and Lynn Zimmer (deceased) in "The Myth of Marijuana's Gateway Effect", Feb 7 1995.

1972: "Rather than inducing violent or aggressive behavior through its purported effects of lowering inhibitions, weakening impulse control and heightening aggressive tendencies, marihuana was usually found to inhibit the expression of aggressive impulses by pacifying the user, interfering with muscular coordination, reducing psychomotor activities and generally producing states of drowsiness lethargy, timidity and passivity." claims Raymond P Shafer, et al, Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding, National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse.

1968: "It can clearly be argued on the world picture that cannabis use does not lead to heroin addiction." claims British Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence in The Wooten Report: Committee on Drug Dependence, Cannabis

truth: the Anti-Drugwar's "Assessing the 'Gateway' Theory"
briancbennett.com/charts/nsduh/gateway.htm

 

 

Reproductive System

2009: "Frequent and/or long-term marijuana use may significantly increase a man's risk of developing the most aggressive type of testicular cancer, according to a study by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. The study results were published online Feb 9 in the journal Cancer. The researchers found that being a marijuana smoker at the time of diagnosis was associated with a 70 percent increased risk of testicular cancer. The risk was particularly elevated (about twice that of those who never smoked marijuana) for those who used marijuana at least weekly and/or who had long-term exposure to the substance beginning in adolescence. The results also suggested that the association with marijuana use might be limited to nonseminoma, a fast-growing testicular malignancy that tends to strike early, between ages 20 and 35, and accounts for about 40 percent of all testicular-cancer cases. ... The researchers emphasize that their results are not definitive, but rather open a door to more research questions. 'Our study is the first inkling that marijuana use may be associated with testicular cancer, and we still have a lot of unanswered questions,' [Stephen M] Schwartz said, such as why marijuana appears to be associated with only one type of testicular cancer. 'We need to conduct additional research to see whether the association can be observed in other populations' ... The National Cancer Institute, the National Institute on Drug Abuse and funds from the Hutchinson Center supported this research ... According to the National Cancer Institute, testicular cancer is very rare, accounting for only 1 percent of cancers in U.S. men. About 8,000 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer each year, and about 390 die of the disease annually." – "Marijuana Use Linked to Increased Risk of Testicular Cancer", Feb 9 2009. Related articles: "Association of Marijuana Use and the Incidence of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors", "Marijuana Linked to Aggressive Testicular Cancer"

2003: "Men who smoke marijuana frequently have significantly less seminal fluid, a lower total sperm count and their sperm behave abnormally, all of which may affect fertility adversely, a new study in reproductive physiology at the University at Buffalo has shown. This study is the first to assess marijuana's effects on specific swimming behavior of sperm from marijuana smokers and to compare the results with sperm from men with confirmed fertility. Marijuana contains the cannabinoid drug THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), which is its primary psychoactive chemical, as well as other cannabinoids." claims Lani J Burkman from "Sperm From Marijuana Smokers Move Too Fast Too Early, Impairing Fertility, UB Research Shows", Oct 14 2003

1991: "Chronic use of marijuana didn't affect concentrations of any of these hormones [testosterone, lutenizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, and cortisol] The finding of decreased testosterone levels in men continues today to be widely disseminated in the informational literature even though subsequent research hasn't supported the 1974 findings." claims Dr Robert Block, Assistant Professor of Anesthesia, Iowa College of Medicine and author of an article published in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

1978: "Federally funded studies of long-tern users of high-potency marijuana in three foreign countries showed no difference between the health, ability to work, and brain function of users and non-users, a number of researchers said ... The studies failed, however, to settle a recent controversy over whether marijuana smoking reduces the amount of the male sex hormone testosterone, as originally reported by Dr Robert C Kolodny of the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation in St Louis. A comparison of 84 Costa Rican marijuana users with 156 nonusers by a team of doctors headed by W J Coggins of the University of Florida turned up no difference in testosterone levels. But [Dr Sidney] Cohen's studies at UCLA backed Kolodny's findings. ... In studying the health of American users, Cohen kept 28 men who used marijuana in the UCLA hospital and studied their reactions. He found the lowered testosterone levels ..." reports Stuart Auerbach in "Studies See No Health Effect of Pot Smoking, Researchers Say", Washington Post, Jan 28, 1978.

"Although initial use of cannabis lowers sperm count and testosterone levels, animals and humans develop a tolerance after prolonged use, with sperm count and testosterone returning to levels found in non-users." claims a study, Cannnabis in Costa Rica: A Study of Chronic Marijuana Use, by William Carter.

 

 

Safety

Also see Accidents, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Brain, Cancer safety, Comparative Pharmacological safety, Immune System safety, Lung, Medicinal safety, Reproductive System safety, Smoking safety, Stomach

Addiction Research Foundation's "Cannabis, Health and Public Policy"
sano.camh.net/announce/n_a9801h.htm, pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/dope/body/policy.html

DrugText's Marijuana Myths by Paul Hager
drugtext.org/sub/marmyt1.html

Erowid Cannabis Vault: THC Material Safety Data Sheet
erowid.org/plants/cannabis/thc_data_sheet.shtml

truth: the Anti-Drugwar's "Cannabis Induced Deaths"
briancbennett.com/charts/death/cannabis.htm

 

 

Smoking

Also see Inhalation, Lung, Tetra-Hydro-Cannabinol, Vaporization

 

Smoking safety

Also see Cancer safety, Comparative Pharmacological safety, Lung, Medicinal safety

2005: "Marijuana smoking -'even heavy longterm use'- does not cause cancer of the lung, upper airwaves, or esophagus, Donald Tashkin reported at this year's meeting of the International Cannabinoid Research Society. Coming from Tashkin, this conclusion had extra significance for the assembled drug-company and university-based scientists (most of whom get funding from the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse). Over the years, Tashkin's lab at UCLA has produced irrefutable evidence of the damage that marijuana smoke wreaks on bronchial tissue. With NIDA's support, Tashkin and colleagues have identified the potent carcinogens in marijuana smoke, biopsied and made photomicrographs of pre-malignant cells, and studied the molecular changes occurring within them. It is Tashkin's research that the Drug Czar's office cites in ads linking marijuana to lung cancer. Tashkin himself has long believed in a causal relationship, despite a study in which Stephen Sidney examined the files of 64,000 Kaiser patients and found that marijuana users didn't develop lung cancer at a higher rate or die earlier than non-users. Of five smaller studies on the question, only two -involving a total of about 300 patients- concluded that marijuana smoking causes lung cancer. Tashkin decided to settle the question by conducting a large, prospectively designed, population-based, case-controlled study. 'Our major hypothesis,' he told the ICRS, 'was that heavy, longterm use of marijuana will increase the risk of lung and upper-airwaves cancers.' ... Exposure to marijuana was measured in joint years (joints per day x 365). Controls were found based on age, gender and neighborhood. Among them, 46% had never used marijuana, 31% had used less than one joint year, 12% had used 10-30 j-yrs, 2% had used 30-60 j-yrs, and 3% had used for more than 60 j-yrs. Tashkin controlled for tobacco use and calculated the relative risk of marijuana use resulting in lung and upper airwaves cancers. All the odds ratios turned out to be less than one (one being equal to the control group's chances)! Compared with subjects who had used less than one joint year, the estimated odds ratios for lung cancer were .78; for 1-10 j-yrs, .74; for 10-30 j-yrs, .85 for 30-60 j-yrs; and 0.81 for more than 60 j-yrs. The estimated odds ratios for oral/pharyngeal cancers were 0.92 for 1-10 j-yrs; 0.89 for 10-30 j-yrs; 0.81 for 30-60 j-yrs; and 1.0 for more than 60 j-yrs. ... 'So, in summary' Tashkin concluded, 'we failed to observe a positive association of marijuana use and other potential confounders.' " reports Fred Gardner from "Study: Smoking Marijuana Does Not Cause Lung Cancer", CounterPunch, July 2-4 2005.

2004: "Previous laboratory investigations, case reports, and a hospital-based case-control study have suggested that marijuana use may be a risk factor for squamous cell head and neck cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study to determine whether marijuana use is associated with the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Case subjects (n = 407) were 18–65-year-old residents of three counties in western Washington State who were newly diagnosed with OSCC from 1985 through 1995. Control subjects (n = 615), who were similar to the cases with respect to age and sex, were selected from the general population using random-digit telephone dialing. Lifetime histories of marijuana use and exposure to known OSCC risk factors were ascertained using a structured questionnaire. Information on genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase enzymes was obtained from assays on participant DNA. Odds ratios for associations with features of marijuana use were adjusted for sex, education, birth year, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. A similar proportion of case subjects (25.6%) and control subjects (24.4%) reported ever use of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.6–1.3). There were no trends in risk observed with increasing duration or average frequency of use or time since first or last use. No subgroup defined by known or suspected OSCC risk factors (age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and genetic polymorphisms) showed an increased risk. Marijuana use was not associated with OSCC risk in this large, population-based study." claims Karin A. Rosenblatt1, Janet R. Daling2,3, Chu Chen2,3, Karen J. Sherman4 and Stephen M. Schwartz, from "Marijuana Use and Risk of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma", Cancer Research #64, June 1 2004, pgs 4049-4054.

2003: "Although the inhalation of chemical toxins in cannabis smoke has been linked to bronchitis and other respiratory problems, it has not been shown to cause lung cancer or a higher death rate. The most extensive study to date on marijuana and mortality was conducted by investigators at Kaiser Permanente and published in the April 1997 issue of the American Journal of Public Health. It showed no substantial link between regular marijuana smoking and death, but suggested that marijuana prohibition may itself pose a health hazard to the user. The Kaiser team, led by Stephen Sidney, MD, looked at 10 years of mortality statistics for more than 65,000 men and women who received health check-ups at Kaiser’s Oakland and San Francisco hospitals between 1979 and 1985. Patients were divided into groups ranging from those who had never tried marijuana to those who use it currently or regularly. Mortality statistics for all patients were followed until 1991 and analyzed for any association between marijuana and death. The study’s statistical methodology controlled for the use of tobacco and alcohol so that deaths from marijuana smoking could be clearly defined. Researchers found no increase in deaths among the more than 14,000 patients who reported they were marijuana users as compared to those who had never used marijuana. They further noted that the total mortality risks associated with marijuana use were lower than those for tobacco-cigarette smoking for both men and women. Women who used marijuana also had a lower risk of total mortality as compared to those who consumed alcohol regularly. The study noted that marijuana smokers with AIDS did have a significantly higher death rate than non-smokers, but said that their mortality was virtually the same as it was for AIDS patients who didn’t smoke marijuana. Researchers stressed that the links they found between marijuana use and death were associations and not an indication that marijuana was a cause of death.” from "Marijuana Smoking Doesn't Lead to Higher Death Rate", O'Shaughnessy's Jouurnal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

1999: "Recent reports of molecular and genetic alterations in marijuana users suggested that marijuana smoke might also activate CYP1A1 gene. Dr. Roth investigated this possibility using Hepa-1 cells and found that marijuana tar, and more specifically D9-THC, regulates the induction and function of CYP1A1 gene, an observation that is entirely novel. Transcriptional activation of CYP1A1 by D9-THC may help to explain the relatively high frequency of DNA mutations and mucosal abnormalities that occur in marijuana smokers. The inhalation of marijuana smoke delivers both nanogram concentrations of conventional PAHs and milligram quantities of D9-THC to the lung. Induction of CYP1A1 produced by D9-THC could result in greater activation of smoke-related procarcinogens and higher adduct-related injury. However, it is also possible that inhaled D9-THC competes for the active site of CYP1A1, paradoxically reducing the activation of procarcinogens." claims Dr Michael D Roth from "A Conference Summary on Pulmonary Pathophysiologic and Immune Consequences of Smoked Substance Abuse", National Institute on Drug Abuse.

1995: "The smoking of cannabis, even long term, is not harmful to health." claims the British scientific journal Lancet.

1993: "This water pipe study is a classic example of the harm reduction approach to drug use. If water pipes really reduce the harm associated with marijuana smoking, non-medical users can be educated about the benefits of water pipes and encouraged to use them whenever possible. Since smoking is one of the main harms associated with the use of marijuana (accidents are another), this simple water pipe study may help lay the groundwork for significantly reducing the harmfulness of marijuana smoke. If US drug policy ever moves to a harm-reduction approach to marijuana, studies such as this one will play an important role in helping users to identify and minimize the health risks of marijuana." claims Gieringer, "Marijuana Water Pipe Study", Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, Vol 4, No 3, Winter 1993-94.

 

 

Spasticity

Also see Mutiple Sclerosis, Nausea, Pain

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other spasticity ailments" claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2004: "I'm fighting for the right to use cannabis to prevent uncontrollable seizures where over 20 Rx meds and surgery have failed.... My mother has had epilepsy all her life. Most of her life she was able to control her seizures with dilantin, Phenobarbital and most recently Tegretol. About 5 years ago she started having auras and seizures that no prescription medication was able to control. ... The reason I'm writing is because we know that cannabis (marijuana) prevents her seizures. Not only do I know this but there are thousands of other patients out there that know it. ... The Ohio State Medical Society convened a committee that reported on the medicinal properties of cannabis in 1860. W.P. Kincaid reported: “I have treated four cases of epilepsy with the hemp; two were permanently benefited (at least to the present time); one temporarily, and one not at all.” Major pharmaceutical firms listed epilepsy as one of the conditions for which cannabis was indicated either alone or as an ingredient in combination preparations." claims "phatboy" – "5000 year old drug prevents seizures.", Epilepsy Foundation eCommunities Forums, Jan 8 2004.

2003: "The majority of respondents (96%) was aware cannabis was potentially therapeutically useful for MS and most (72%) supported legalization for medicinal purposes. ... Symptoms reported to be ameliorated included anxiety/depression, spasticity and chronic pain. ... Conclusions: Subjective improvements in symptom experience were reported by the majority of people with MS who currently use cannabis. Further evaluation of this substance is warranted." claims Page SA, Verhoef MJ, Stebbins RA, Metz LM, Levy JC, "Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis.", Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, Aug 2003, pgs 201-205.

2003: "Pain relief associated with both THC and CBD was significantly superior to placebo. Impaired bladder control, muscle spasms and spasticity were improved CME [cannabis medicinal extracts] in some patients with these symptoms. ... Cannabis medicinal extracts can improve neurogenic symptoms unresponsive to standard treatments. Unwanted effects are predictble and generally well tolerated. Larger scale studies are warranted to confirm these findings." claims Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J, "A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms.", Clinical Rehabilitation, Feb 2003, pgs 21-29.

2002: "There is a growing amount of evidence to suggest that cannabis and individual cannabinoids may be effective in suppressing certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, including spasticity and pain. ... Clinical trials have shown that cannabis, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and nabilone can produce objective and/or subjective relief from spasticity, pain, tremor, and nocturia in patients with multiple sclerosis (8 trials) or spinal cord injury (1 trial). The clinical evidence is supported by results from experiments with animal models of multiple scleroisis." claims Pertwee RG, "Cannabinoids and multiple sclerosis.", Pharmacological Therapeutics, Aug 2002, pgs 165-174.

2000: "I've heard that Dilantin is ~ the World's best anti-seizure drug and that it can be a very effective, fast-acting anti-depressant. Also, as I recall, one animal study was done with Dilantin and it ~ significantly extended the average lifespan of the animals. ... the full suite of Cannabinoids from the Cannabis Plant perform together as the World's most effective anti-seizure 'agent' or combination. Also, this herbal extract blend of Cannabinoids is a very safe and effective anti-depressant medicine ..." claims Pat from "Cannabis vs Dilantin. Safety Ratio. WoDs, etc.", Marihemp, July 2 2000.2003: "Treatment with [Marinol] cannabinoids did not have a beneficial effect on spasticity when assessed with the Ashworth scale. However, though there was a degree of unmasking among the patients in the active treatment groups, objective improvement in mobility and patients' opinion of an improvement in pain suggest [Marinol] cannabinoids might be clinically useful." claims John Zajicek, Patrick Fox, Hilary Sanders, David Wright, Jane Vickery, Andrew Nunn, Alan Thompson, "Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial", The Lancet, vol 362, no 9395, Nov 2003.
thelancet.com/journal/vol362/iss9395/full/llan.362.9395.original_research.27670.1

2000: "The exacerbation of these signs after antagonism of the CB1 and CB2 receptors, notably the CB1 receptor, using SR141716A and SR144528 (ref 8) indicated that the endogenous cannabinoid system may be tonically active in the control of tremor and spasticity. This provides a rationale for patients' indications of the therapeutic potential of cannabis in the control of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis ..." claims Baker D, Pryce G, Croxford JL, Brown P, Pertwee RG, Huffman JW, Layward L, "Cannabinoids control spasticity and tremor in a multiple sclerosis model.", Nature, Mar 2000, pgs 84-87.

1997: "From 97% to 30% of the subjects reported cannabis improved (in descending rank order): spasticity, chronic pain of extremitites, acute paroxysmal phenomenon, tremor, emotional dysfunction, bowel and bladder dysfunctions, vision dimness, dysfunctions of walking and balance, memory loss." claims Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R, "The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.", Eur Neurology, 1997, pgs 44-48.

1996: "The effect of THC on spasticity, rigidity, and pain was estimated by objective neurological tests (Ashworth scale, walking ability) and patient self-rating protocols. Oral and rectal THC reduced at a progressive stage of illness spasticity, rigidity and pain, resulting in improved active and passive mobility. The relative effectiveness of the oral vs. the rectal formation was 25-50%." claims Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y, "The effect of orally and rectally administered delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients.", International Journal Clinical Pharmacological Therapeutics, Oct 1996, pgs 446-452.

1990: "Delta-9-THC and codeine both had an analgesic effect in comparison with placebo. Only delta-9-THC showed a significant beneficial effect on spasticity. In the dosage of THC used no altered consciousness occurred." claims Maurere M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A, "Delta-9-tetrohydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial." Eur Arch Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 1990, pgs 1-4.

1989: "The chronic motor handicaps of a 30-year-old multiple sclerosis patient acutely improved while he smoked a marihuana cigarette. ... It is concluded that cannabinoids may have powerful beneficial effects on both spasticity and ataxia that warrant further evaluation." claims Meinck HM, Schonle PW, Conrad B, "Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis.", Journal of Neurology, Feb 1989, pgs 120-122.

1987: "At doses greater than 7.5 mg [of THC] there was significant improvement in patient ratings of spasticity compared to placebo. These positive findings in a treatment failure population suggest a role for THC in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis." claims Ungerleider JT, Andyrsiak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myers LW, "Delta-9-THC in the tratment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis.", Adv Alcohol Substance Abuse, 1987, pgs 39-50.

1981: "For the group, 10 mg THC significantly reduced spasticity by clinical measurement (P less than 0.01). Quadiceps EMG interference pattern was reduced in those four patients with primarily extensor spasticity. THC was administred to eight other patients with spasticity and other CNS lesions. Responses varied, but benefit was seen in three of three patients with 'tonic spasms.' " claims Petro DJ, Ellenberger C Jr, "Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydorcannabinol.", Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Aug-Sept 1981, pgs 413S-416S.

1980: "Marijuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm of spasticity" by D Petro, Psychosomatics, vol 21, pgs 81-85.

1975: "Anticonvulsant nature of marijuana smoking" by P Consroe, G Wood and H Buchsbaum, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol 234, pgs 306-307.

1974: "The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males" by M Dunn and R Davis, Paraplegia, vol 12, pg 175.

1973: "Cannabidiol and cannabis sativa extract protect mice and rats against convulsive agents" by E Carlini, J Leite, M Tannhauser and A Beradi, Journal of Pharmacology, vol 25, pgs 664-665.

"In 1839, Dr. William B. O'Shaughnessy was greatly impressed with the plant's muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant properties, stating his belief that in cannabis, 'The (medical) profession has gained an anti-convulsive remedy of the greatest value.' An historical account alluding to the use of cannabis in the treatment of spasticity can be found in a March 22, 1890, issue of The Lancet. An article written by Dr. J. Russell Reynolds (physician to Queen Victoria) noted, 'There are many cases of so called epilepsy in adults but which, in my opinion (are) the result of organic disease of a gross character in the nervous centers, in which India hemp (cannabis) is the most useful agent with which I am acquainted.' Dr. Reynolds may well have been referring to multiple sclerosis (MS). The first written record of MS is noted between 1880-85. ... Muscular spasticity ... afflicts individuals with multiple sclerosis, stroke, cerebral palsy, paraplegia, quadriplegia, and spinal cord injuries. Current medical therapy is woefully inadequate for those individuals suffering from spasticity problems. ... a significant number of studies have been conducted leading Chief Administrative Law Judge Francis Young of the DEA to conclude in September 1988 that marijuana's medical benefits in the treatment of spasticity is 'beyond question' and recommended rescheduling of the drug to allow prescriptive access. Unfortunately Judge Young's ruling was rejected by the administrator of the DEA." claims Alliance for Cannabis Thearpeutics from "Medical Use of Marijuana for Muscular Spasticity".

"Cannabinoids act in general as inhibitory neurotransmitters, meaning that they inhibit processes that other neurotransmitters can stimulate. This is probably why cannabinoids are such effective anti-spasmodic agents. Cannabinoid receptors are very rich in the areas of the brain that control muscle spasms." claims Los Angeles Cannabis Resource Center from "Cannabinoids in the Brain".

"Marijuana and epilepsy: paradoxical anticonvulsant and convulsant effects" by D M Feeney, Marijuana Biological Effects: Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and the Brain, edited by Gabriel Nahas, Paxton, D Petro, published by Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, pgs 643-657.

Cannabis Prevents Seizures
fgi.net/~lstevens/cannabis/page.htm

 

 

Spinal Injuries

Includes paraplegia, quadiplegia
Also see
Spasticity

2002: "There is a growing amount of evidence to suggest that cannabis and individual cannabinoids may be effective in suppressing certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, including spasticity and pain. ... Clinical trials have shown that cannabis, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and nabilone can produce objective and/or subjective relief from spasticity, pain, tremor, and nocturia in patients with multiple sclerosis (8 trials) or spinal cord injury (1 trial). The clinical evidence is supported by results from experiments with animal models of multiple scleroisis." claims Pertwee RG, "Cannabinoids and multiple sclerosis.", Pharmacological Therapeutics, Aug 2002, pgs 165-174.

1974: "The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males" by M Dunn and R Davis, Paraplegia, vol 12, pg 175.

"I encountered spasticity as a major stumbling block to rehab. They attempted to control the spasms with Valium for 3 months and my mind was so fogged that I revolted and asked to be removed from Valium – I couldn't remember anything. I then was prescribed Leorisal whose generic name is Baclofen – 200 mg every 4 hours for the last 27 years. It – along with range of motion exercise – allays the spasms to a manageable extent. My legs shake uncontrollably – they violently jump, stick out straight in front and don't bend at the knee. Baclofen is supposed to control this but it doesn't. Episodes of spasms during the time of my rehab were violent and embarrassing. Two Vietnam vets who were in rehab with me took mercy on me. One night, they took me to the roof for 'fresh air' where we smoked a marijuana joint, which immediately not only affected my mood but also affected the spasms. ... A joint the morning and two or three in the evening keep me upbeat and spasm free, coupled with range of motion exercise and a healthy diet. I don't want to take Valuim or other incapacitating drugs even though I could. The marijuana allows me to keep an even keel and to avoid episodes of spasms. If I took Baclofin alone, I would not have this level of control. I would still have spasms." claims anonymous spinal injuried paraplegic from Arkansas, from "Patient Story - Spinal Injury".

"The nerves in my neck were smashed in a gunshot accident ... I can move my arm, but I can't move my fingers. There is a kind of numbness from my left shoulder down to my pinkie. But there is also a burning feeling, like needles. I can't stand for anything to touch my arm – if I accidently hit it there is extreme pain. It throbs 24 hrs a day. I've been on numerous strong medicines, including Tawan NX, Vicodin 10 mg [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] , and methadone 10 mg 4 to 5 pills per day. Some days I can take less, depending on how much I use marijuana. I don't smoke to get stoned, I smoke it for relief from thinking about my arm all the time and to take away the pain. When I smoke marijuana, I can get things done around the house, it gets me energetic, gives me an appetite. I don't have an appetite when I don't have marijuana – I have to force myself to eat. The narcotics give you a state of mind where you don't eat – I had to get off Vicodin – I was taking too much – it was hurting my kidneys. There's some kind of aspirin in it, 600 mg per tablet, 5-6 tablets per day – we caught it just in time before it ruined my kidneys. So they put me back on methadone – I didn't want to get back on that – it makes me nauseated, not eat, sometimes makes me depressed. When I smoke, I don't have to take very much methadone and I have a better outlook on life." claims anonymous patient from "Nerve Damage".

 

 

Stress

1999: On Aug 6, B E Smith, the first Californian to fight federal drug charges using the state's voter-approved medical marijuana law was sentenced to 27 months in prison. Proposition 215 could have shielded Smith in state court because he has a doctor's recommendation to grow and smoke the plant to relieve post-traumatic stress disorder from his service in Vietnam.

 

 

Studies & Reports

2010: "Report to the Legislature and Governor of the State of California" by Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research
cmcr.ucsd.edu/CMCR_REPORT_FEB17.pdf

2008: "Supporting Research into the Therapeutic Role of Marijuana" by American College of Physicians
cmcr.ucsd.edu/geninfo/ACP_2008_v2.pdf

2005: The Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition aka Miron Report by Jeffrey Alan Miron
prohibitioncosts.org, freedomtoexhale.com/mironreport.pdf

2004: "California Physicians and Medical Marijuana: A Statement by the Medical Board of California" by Medical Board of California
medbd.ca.gov/Medical_Marijuana.htm (2010)

2003: 4th Reunion Nacional Sociedad Espanola de Investigacion Sobre Cannabinoides (spanish)
cannabinoidsociety.org/HTML/SCRSprograma2003.pdf

2003: First European Workshop on Cannabinoid Research
ucm.es/info/seic-web/abstract-book.pdf

2002: Cannabis: Our Position for a Canadian Public Policy
parl.gc.ca/common/Committee_SenRep.asp?Language=E&Parl=37&Ses=1&comm_id=85, cmcr.ucsd.edu/geninfo/CanadianSenateReport2002.pdf

2000: Marijuana As Medicine? The Science Beyond the Controversy
nap.edu/books/0309065313/html

1999: Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base
newton.nap.edu/html/marimed, nap.edu/readingroom/books/marimed, nap.edu/books/0309071550/html, iom.edu/report.asp?id=5608, nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6376

1998: United Kingdom House of Lords Science and Technology Ninth Report
parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199798/ldselect/ldsctech/151/15101.htm

1997: The endogenous cannabinoid signalling system: chemistry, biochemistry and physiology
netsci-journal.com/97v1/97007/index.htm

1995: Drugs Policy in the Netherlands: Continuity and Change
drugtext.org/library/reports/wvc/default.htm

1995: Report of the Grand Jury of Baltimore City
drugtext.org/library/reports/baltim1.html

1994: Drug Control Through Legalisation, A Plan for Regulation of the Drug Problem in the Netherlands
drugtext.org/library/reports/nlplan/default.htm

1994: Wiser Course: Ending Drug Prohibition
Report of Special Committee on Drugs and the Law of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York
drugtext.org/library/reports/nylawyer/nylawyer.htm

1973: Drug Use in America: Problem in Perspective
National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse
drugtext.org/library/reports/duapip/pipmenu.htm

1972: Medical Marijuana Papers 1839-1972
edited by Tod Hiro Mikuriya
mikuriya.com/mmp.html

1972: Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding
National Commission of Marihuana and Drug Abuse
drugtext.org/library/reports/nc/ncmenu.htm

1972: Licit and Illicit Drugs
aka Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs
ukcia.org/research/cunion/cumenu.htm

1970: Le Dain Commission Report
aka Report of the Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry into Non-Medical Use of Drugs
drugtext.org/library/reports/ledain/nonmed.htm, ukcia.org/research/cunion/cu60.htm

1968: Wootten Report: British Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence

1961: Drug Addiction: Crime or Disease? Interim and Final Reports
Joint Committee of the American Bar Association and the American Medical Association on Narcotic Drugs

1944: LaGuardia Committee Report
drugtext.org/library/reports/lag/lagmenu.htm

1929: Panama Canal Zone Military Investigations
druglibrary.org/schaffer/Library/studies/panama, druglibrary.org/schaffer/Library/studies/panama/panama1.htm

1894: Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report
ukcia.org/research/indian/contents.htm, drugtext.org/library/reports/inhemp/ihmenu.htm, mikuriya.com/cw_ihdc.html

1873: Effects of the Use of Ganja and Other Preparations of the Hemp Plant
ccrmg.org/journal/03sum/preihdc.pdf, ccrmg.org/journal/03sum/preihdc.html

CannabisMD
CannabisMD Reports cannabismd.org/reports

Drugtext Foundation
Report Pages drugtext.org/library/reports/default.htm

Hemp Evolution
Medical Studies Regarding Cannabis hempevolution.org/study/study.htm

Harm Reduction Journal
harmreductionjournal.com

International Association for Cannabis as Medicine
Clinical Studies and Case Reports cannabis-med.org/studies/study.php
Studies and Case Reports acmed.org/english/studies.htm

Online Pot onlinepot.org
Medical, Health Reports, & Scientific Research Studies on Medical Marijuana onlinepot.org/medicalreports.htm

 

 

Temporo-Mandibular Joint Disorder (TMJ)

"I have hypoglycemia, a form of diabetes. ... The second condition I treat with marijuana is TMJ disorder, referring to the temporo-mandibular joint of the jaw. Over the years, this condition has worn my cartilage away. The severity of pain is hard to describe, but if the pain was ranked in levels up to 5, I would say that level 3 I am nauseated from the pain. At level 4 I can barely move my jaws enough to talk and eating is difficult. The real challenge is to not vomit from the pain, because vomiting flexes my jaw. At level 5, I can't avoid vomiting and I can't eat, which causes my blood sugar to drop dangerously low. The standard treatments for this are cortisone shots in the jaw and/or joint replacement. I have a history of drug allergies and am afraid to use cortisone. Also, I've learned that jaw joint replacement is very risky with low success rates. ... I wear a bite plate to keep my teeth apart while I sleep. I have a TENS machine that I wear that sends electro-shock to my jaws, which helps bring the pain down a little but I can only use it for one and half hours at a time. For the pain, I've tried Vicodin [hydrocodone and acetaminophen] , but marijuana is as effective as two Vicodin and the relief is immediate with easily controlled dosage. For the nausea and vomiting, marijuana is amazing. The nausea stops in two minutes, period. Even if I'm already vomiting, I can still get it in my system with a few puffs. Since I was arrested, I have struggled because they threaten me with drug tests and jail. I've experimented with more chemical medications. The first month after my arrest I lost twenty pounds, and I was already underweight. The doctor was trying me on different drugs and my body was not tolerating them, so he switched me from one to another six or eight times. I was desperate, but I didn't want to take narcotics. I've been on Vicodin since December 2001, which is a very addicting drug and not recommended for long term use. Not only am I having symptoms of physical addiction, but it's making my condition worse by staying in my system too long and putting me into deep sleep which causes my blood sugar to drop. So the episodes that normally last 4-5 days are now lasting two weeks or more. When it finally eases up, I go through withdrawal. ... I believe God put marijuana on Earth as medicine to help people. I don't believe opiate addiction is part of God's plan for me. I could leave my home and family for a state where medical marijuana laws would protect me, but I am a grandmother and a granddaughter and don't want to leave my loved ones. ... Our doctor would recommend marijuana if he didn't face the threat of losing his license." claims anonymous female patient from "Appetite and Pain".

 

 

Tetra-Hydro-Cannabinol (THC)

aka delta-9-tetra-hydro-cannabinol
includes Marinol, Dronabinol, Nabilone, Sativex and Cesamet
also see Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabinoids, Ingestion, THC Synthesis

2010: "A combination of compounds in marijuana could help fight off a particularly deadly form of brain cancer, preliminary research suggests. Researchers at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute (CPMCRI) combined the non-psychoactive Cannabis compound, cannabidiol (CBD), with 9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (9-THC), the primary psychoactive active ingredient in Cannabis. They found the combination boosts the inhibitory effects of 9-THC on glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive form of brain tumor. 'Our study not only suggests that combining these two compounds creates a synergistic effect but it also helps identify molecular mechanisms at work here, and that may lead to more effective treatments for glioblastoma and potentially other aggressive cancers', said Sean McAllister, a scientist at CPMCRI and the lead author of the study." – "Marijuana compounds may help fight brain cancer", Jan 16 2010

2005: "There are sound medical reasons for spraying cannabis under the tongue rather than smoking or eating it. The mucosa of the mouth will absorb the drug faster than the digestive system, indeed almost as fast as the lungs, but without irritating the respiratory system. And Sativex can be precisely metered – a single one-tenth milliliter spray contains 2.7 milligrams of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), pot's main psychoactive chemical; 2.5 milligrams of cannabidiol, which doctors think reduces anxiety and muscle tension; and all of pot's active ingredients known as cannabinoids – so that it can be accurately studied." reports Gary Greenberg, "Respectable Reefer", Nov 14 2005

2005: "Health Canada's approval of Sativex was based on the results of a four-week clinical trial involving 66 patients with MS-related neuropathic pain that was carried out in Great Britain, in which half received Sativex and the other half received a placebo. ... Sativex isolates the cannabinoid components, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), representing only two of the more than 60 related chemicals that make up the marijuana plant. It is believed that THC helps patients with pain while CBD has a neurological effect, and that isolating these two cannabinoids will enable patients to eliminate many of the side-effects that are associated with the use of medical marijuana." reports David Hodges, "Pot-based drug shows promise for neuropathic pain", Medical Post vol 41 issue 19, May 17 2005.

2004: "Cannabis extracts may be well suited to treatment of inflammatory diesases due to their multiple mechanisms of action. THC seemingly alleviates pain, spasm and diarrhoea, while the CBD component presents the likelyhood of immunomodulatory benefits. One recently demonstrated CBD effect is its ability to inhibit TFN-a (tissue necrosis factor-alpha), a proven mechanism of other agents employed to treat inflammatory bowel disease." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "The nonpsychoactive cannabis constiuent cannabidiol is an oral anti-artritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis." by AM Mafait, R Gallily, PF Sumariwalla, AS Malik, E Andreakos, R Mechoulam, et al, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 2000;97(17), pgs 9561-9566.

2004: "Numerous studies in the 1970s indicated that THC slowed intestinal passage of a charcoal meal in rodents. Cannabidiol (CBD) had little effect of its own, but synergized the effects of THC." reports "Which Conditions Are Treatable With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Spring 2004, citing "Interaction of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on intestinal motility in mice" by PF Anderson, DM Jackson, GB Chesher, Journal Pharm Pharmacology 1974:26(2), pgs 136-137.

2003: "Treatment with [Marinol] cannabinoids did not have a beneficial effect on spasticity when assessed with the Ashworth scale. However, though there was a degree of unmasking among the patients in the active treatment groups, objective improvement in mobility and patients' opinion of an improvement in pain suggest [Marinol] cannabinoids might be clinically useful." claims John Zajicek, Patrick Fox, Hilary Sanders, David Wright, Jane Vickery, Andrew Nunn, Alan Thompson, "Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial", The Lancet, vol 362, no 9395, Nov 2003.
thelancet.com/journal/vol362/iss9395/full/llan.362.9395.original_research.27670.1

2000: "A study by researchers from the University of California, San Francisco has found that patients with HIV infection taking protease inhibitors do not experience short-term adverse virologic effects from using cannabinoids. ... All three groups gained weight. Part of that was due to regularly scheduled meals and snacks being readily available. However, the placebo arm averaged a gain of 1.30 kilograms while the subjects who took oral dronabinol gained an average of 3.18 kilograms. Those who smoked marijuana gained an average of 3.51 kilograms. Caloric intake reflected the same order." claims Dr Donald I Abrams, Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of California at San Francisco from "Marijuana Does Not Appear To Alter Viral Loads of HIV Patients Taking Protease Inhibitors", July 13 2000.
also at cannabismd.org/reports/abrams1.php, marijuananews.com/news.php3?sid=253

1997: "Synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, is currently available in oral form for treatment of HIV Wasting Syndrome and chemotherapy-induced nausea. A double-blind study confirmed that this synthetic drug was preferred by chemotherapy patients by an almost two-to one margin." claims "Marijuana: Myths and Truth", Office of National Drug Control Policy

1996: "William Anderson is a 37 year old patient of mine who suffers from severe post traumatic headaches. ... Presently he is taking Tylox [oxycodone and acetaminophen] 1 or 2 per day for severe headaches, Marinol to provide some daily control and Doxipin [dibenzoxepin] and Lithium to control the depression associated with his constant turmoil. ... The only drug that seems to give William any true felief from pain is that from smoking marijuana. ... Having seen him in constant pain without the availability of the Marinol or marijuana purchased from a street dealer, I have no question that there is pain relief afforded to him by the drug. It should be noted that the Marinol only gives him partial and inadequate pain relief." claims Dr Michael E Mayle, DO, in a letter to Whom It May Concern, 1996.

1996: 80% of AIDS patients who had used cannabis preferred it to prescription drugs including synthetic THC, claims B Wesner, "The Medical Marijuana Issue Among PWAs: Reports of Therapeutic Use and Attitudes Toward Legal Reform", Drug Research Unit, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

1991: 20% of AIDS patients did not like the psychoactive effects of synthetic THC, claims T F Plasse, R W Gorter, S H Krasnow, et al, "Recent clinical experience with dronabinol", Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, vol 40, pgs 695-700.

1988: "Marijuana cigarettes in many cses are superior to synthetic THC capsules in reducing ;chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marijuana cigarettes have an important, clear advantage over synthetic THC capsules in that natural marijuana is inhaled and generally takes effect more quickly than the synthetic capsule" claims Francis L Young, Chief Administrative Law Judge, US Drug Enforcement Administration, 1988.

1986: "I started feeling the changes pretty much right away. Smoking marijuana also felt ten times better than taking Marinol pill. It helped reduce my nausea and I could hold down food better." claims Jim Kerns, cancer and chemotherapy patient.

1983: Inhaled botanical cannabis is "far superior to the best available conventional drug, Compazine, and clearly superior to synthetic THC pill." claims the report of The Lynn Pierson Therapeutic Research Program, Behavioral Health Sciences Div, Health and Environment Department, State of New Mexico.

1983: "We found both marijuana smoking and THC capsules to be effective antiemetics. We found an approximate 23 percent higher success rate among those patients smoking (90%) than among those administered THC capsules (67%). ... We found that the major reason for smoking failure was smoking intolerance; while the major reason for THC capsule failure was nausea and vomiting so severe that the patient could not retain the capsule." claims "Annual Report: Evaluation of Marijuana and Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Treatment of Nausea and/or Vomiting Associated with Cancer Therapy Unresponsive to Conventional Anti-Emetic Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity", Board of Pharmacy, State of Tennessee, July 1983.

"When our daughter was undergoing chemotherapy for lymph cancer, she was sick and vomiting constantly as a result of her treatments. No legal drugs, including Marinol, helped her. We finally turned to marijuana. With it, she kept her food down, was comfortable and even gained weight. Those who say Marinol and other drugs are satisfactory substitutes for marijuana may be right in some cases but certainly not in all cases." claims Franklyn "Lyn" Nofziger from his op-ed published in Washington Post, requoted in "Medical Marijuana: Reagan Aide Lyn Nofziger Dead at 81 – Supported Patients' Rights".

Articles:
"Marinol vs. Marijuana: Politics, Science, and Popular Culture" by Kambiz Akhavan
Erowid Cannabis Vault: THC Material Safety Data Sheet erowid.org/plants/cannabis/thc_data_sheet.shtml
"Marinol vs. Natural Cannabis" by Paul Armentano norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=6635

 

THC Synthesis

 

 

Tolerance

Also see Addiction, Alcoholism, Habituation, Withdrawal

 

 

Tourette's Syndrome

"I have had Tourette's syndrome almost all of my life. ... In the fifth grade I started taking Tranxene (clorazepate) 7.5 mg to 'control' my tics. I turned into a different person. I didn't care about nothing. Then I got on such a dosage that I didn't do anything but sit and sleep. And I always felt angry, but yet embarrassed. In about seventh grade the Tranxene started to not work as well. I started mimicking the teachers, tapping my pencils harder to the point of breaking them, blinking my eyes really bad, rolling my lips, shaking my head, and constantly getting up and down out of the chairs. ... Dr. H ... diagnosed me with a full-blown case of Tourette's syndrome and put me on clonidine 0.1 mg. I had to build myself into it until I was taking three full pills a day. At that point my life was not mine. I couldn't remember anything. I didn't do anything. I flunked everything in school, got kicked out for sleeping in class. 1 was so sad and full of confusion and hate. Then the clonidine wasn't working so well so I started taking Haldol (haloperidol) 0.5 mg along with the clonidine. I was a zombie by then. I didn't function. ... Paul one night ... asked if I wanted to get high. ... I remember that first time I was so mellow and actually got pretty happy. Well. I was twelve or thirteen then and I've smoked pot ever since. But for a different reason now. ... When I was about sixteen I noticed one night I got high and my tics weren't ticking. ... Since I smoked pot ... I could focus on school better. My grades went up. The more pot I smoked, the better I could think, especially since I had no pills in me. ... I don't want to go to prison for something that truly helps my Tourette's syndrome and helps me function. I believe and so does all my family that marihuana is the best medicine I have ever had." claims anonymous patient from "Tourette's Syndrome".

 

 

Vaporization

Also see Smoking

2003: "Patients receiving physician approval to use cannabis should be warned that chemicals released when the dried leaves and/or flowers are burned put heavy smokers at increased risk for bronchitis and respiratory infections. The risk can be avoided, however, by an alternative delivery system: a device called a vaporizer that heats dried cannabis to a temperature where cannabinoid vapors are released, but below the point of combustion, where noxious and carcinogenic smoke toxins are formed. Patients can thus inhale the pharmaceutically active cannabinoids without exposing themselves to harmful respiratory toxins." claims Dale Gieringer from "Recommendation to Patients: 'Don’t smoke, Vaporize' ", O'Shaughnessy's Jouurnal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.

1993: "The current use of cigarette or pipe for the inhaling of cannabinoids is recognized as delivering numerous irritants and possible carcinogens along with the desired active principles to the tracheobronchial tree and oral cavity. Vaporization separates out the more therapeutic chemical components from the crude plant or resin impurities and breakdown products of pyrrolysis." claims Tod Hiro Mikuriya from "Vaporization of Cannabinoids: a Preferable Drug Delivery Route", Dec 16, 1993.

Cannabis Health Mall
Box 1481, Grand Forks, British Columbia, Canada V0H 1H0
7457 Third St, Grand Forks, British Columbia, Canada
250-442-5166, 866-808-5566, fax 250-442-5167
cannabishealth.com/store.html, email store@cannabishealth.com

De Verdamper BV
Postbus 251, 1700 AG Heerhugowaard, Netherlands, tel 31-0-72-57-25-786, fax 31-0-72-57-25-784
de-verdamper.nl/pag1e.html, email evert@de-verdamper.nl

(Tod) Mikuriya's "Vaporize! DON'T SMOKE Marijuana; Inhale Cannabinoids"
mikuriya.com/can_vapor.html

VripTech
vriptech.com/home.htm, email info@vriptech.com

 

 

Weight

Includes weight loss, "wasting syndrome"
Also see
Acqired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Anorexia, Appetite, Nausea

2013: "there are limited data regarding the relationship between cannabinoids and metabolic processes. Epidemiologic studies have found lower prevalence rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus in marijuana users compared with people who have never used marijuana, suggesting a relationship between cannabinoids and peripheral metabolic processes." claims Elizabeth A Penner, Hannah Buettner, Murray A Mittleman, from "The Impact of Marijuana Use on Glucose, Insulin, and Insulin Resistance among US Adults".

2005: "Controlled studies have revealed therapeutic utility of cannabinoids in the treatment of ... AIDS wasting syndrome ... THC itself is approved in the U.S. by the FDA, and it is used in many other countries for the prevention of vomiting during cancer chemotherapy, and for appetite enhancement. We, and many others, have found that not only THC does that, but also the endocannabinoids. This is one of the main reasons for high endocannabinoid levels during hunger and so on. Now, THC can be used, and is being used, for these two things. ... Sanofi-Synthélabo Recherché in France is doing some interesting work. They have a compound, which is an antagonist of the cannabinoid system, and they have tested it in about eight thousand obese people. They have found that it is extremely useful. Their appetite goes down slowly, as it should, and they lose weight. They plan to introduce the compound in twelve months time, I think. They're doing a lot of work in the field, and they expect huge sales." claims Dr Raphael Mechoulam, as reported by David Jay Brown, "The New Science of Cannabinoid-Based Medicine: An Interview with Dr. Raphael Mechoulam".

2000: "A study by researchers from the University of California, San Francisco has found that patients with HIV infection taking protease inhibitors do not experience short-term adverse virologic effects from using cannabinoids. ... All three groups gained weight. Part of that was due to regularly scheduled meals and snacks being readily available. However, the placebo arm averaged a gain of 1.30 kilograms while the subjects who took oral dronabinol gained an average of 3.18 kilograms. Those who smoked marijuana gained an average of 3.51 kilograms. Caloric intake reflected the same order." claims Dr Donald I Abrams, Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of California at San Francisco from "Marijuana Does Not Appear To Alter Viral Loads of HIV Patients Taking Protease Inhibitors", July 13 2000.
also at cannabismd.org/reports/abrams1.php, marijuananews.com/news.php3?sid=253

1988: "Effects of Smoked Marijuana on Food Intake and Body Weight of Humans Living in a Residential Laboratory" by R W Foltin, et al, Appetite, vol 11, pgs 1-14.

1986: "I started feeling the changes pretty much right away. Smoking marijuana also felt ten times better than taking Marinol pill. It helped reduce my nausea and I could hold down food better." claims Jim Kerns, cancer patient whose weight fell from 220 to 140 pounds in his first year of chemotherapy .

1976: "Effects of Marijuana use on Body Weight and Caloric Intake in Humans" by Greenberg, et al, Psychopharmacology, vol 49, pgs 79-84.

"I was diagnosed with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis in 1986 ... My neurologist prescribed the drugs Compazine and Antivert. They had little affect on the nausea and no affect on the appetite, even after the dosage was doubled. After a couple of weeks of feeling sick and not eating, I had lost 15 pounds and no medication was helping. ... I decided to try smoking Cannabis/Marijuana. At first I felt worse, but after the effects of the smoke were gone I began to relax and get an appetite. I could finally eat again. Since that time, I have used cannabis to maintain a healthy body weight and a decent standard of living. For years I left my prescription drugs setting on the counter, as Cannabis was more effective." cliams John E Precup from "Patient Testimonials"

 

 

Withdrawal

Also see Addiction, Alcoholism, Habituation, Tolerance

2003: "The reportedly successful use of cannabis as an alternative to alcohol, SSRI antidepressants, and stimulants (in the treatment of ADHD) warrants serious, large-scale investigation. A necessary first step is for the doctors who are monitoring patients using cannabis for these purposes to agree on basic definitions, diagnostic criteria, etc., and to adopt uniform record-keeping methods. Hergenrather’s observation that half his cannabis-using patients have been able to stop taking pharmaceutical drugs – and others have reduced their intake – suggests a line of inquiry that belongs on a common interview form." claims Fred Gardner from "Which Conditions are Californians Actually Treating With Cannabis?", O'Shaughnessy's Jouurnal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group, Summer 2003.